Living conditions among Norwegian-born to immigrant parents in Norway 2016
This report presents the findings for Norwegian-born to immigrant parents who participated in the Survey on living conditions among persons with an immigrant background in 2016. The main aim of the survey was to gain knowledge about the living conditions of immigrants and their Norwegian-born children in Norway and to update the knowledge gained through previous register and living conditions surveys. Findings of immigrants’ living conditions can be found in Vrålstad and Wiggen (2017).
The sample consists of 1 049 Norwegian-born to immigrant parents aged 16 to 39 with family backgrounds from Turkey, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. In the report we compare the findings for Norwegian-born to immigrant parents with the population in general in the same age group, using data from the general surveys on living conditions.
In general, the living conditions of Norwegian-born to immigrant parents resemble those of the general population more than those of immigrants from the same countries. Even so, various aspects of the living conditions differ among the Norwegian-born with parents from the four relevant countries.
Transnational ties and belonging
The Norwegian-born to immigrant parents feel a stronger sense of belonging to Norway than to their parents' country of birth. Although most have visited their parents' country of birth, few have close family there. Those with parents from Turkey visit their parents' country of birth most often and also experience the strongest sense of belonging to their parents' native country than the three other groups. Seventy-six per cent of the Norwegian-born to immigrant parents speak Norwegian at home. In addition, 80 per cent also speak the main language of their parents' country of birth.
Housing and housing conditions
Norwegian-born to immigrant parents are older than young people in the general population when they leave the parental home. A larger proportion lives in densely populated areas, and almost half live in an apartment building. More young people with immigrant parents own the house they live in than young people in the rest of the population. One in three live in cramped conditions, but relatively few perceive their home as too small.
Family and social relations
One in four are married, but cohabitation among Norwegian-born to immigrant parents is not common. Among those who have a partner, almost half have a partner who is not born in Norway. This is most common among those with parents from Pakistan and Turkey. Most Norwegian-born to immigrant parents have good contact with family and friends: those with a background from Pakistan and Turkey meet and have regular contact with parents and siblings they do not live with, while those with parents from Sri Lanka and Vietnam meet friends more often than the other two groups.
Religion is important for many Norwegian-born to immigrant parents. The clear majority with a family background from Turkey and Pakistan are Muslims. Those with parents from Sri Lanka and Vietnam are a more mixed group in terms of religion: some are Hindus and Buddhists. A significant proportion with back¬grounds from these two countries is also Christian or report that they do not belong to any religious faith. We are seeing a secularisation among Norwegian-born to immigrant parents from these four countries: those who no longer practise the faith they grew up in do not go over to other religions.
Work and working environment
Norwegian-born to immigrant parents’ attachment to the labour market and working environment are impacted by the fact that they are relatively young. Fewer are in work than among the general population, but much of this can be explained by the fact that a large proportion is students. Many of the Norwegian-born to immigrant parents in employment work in service and sales. This particularly applies to students with part-time jobs. Norwegian-born to immigrant parents do not report more working environment problems than the population in general in the same age group, and a large majority are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, some do have challenges in connection with their working environment. For example, four out of ten are exposed to loud noise, skin irritants, chemicals, dust or gas in their daily work.
Victimisation and fear of crime
Norwegian-born to immigrant parents are more often subjected to violence and threats, and the proportion is significantly higher for men than women. Most men with parents from Vietnam are victims of violence. The majority with parents from Pakistan and Turkey have been exposed to threats, and this applies to both sexes. Those with parents from Pakistan and Turkey also have the most problems with crime, violence and vandalism in their local area.
The majority of Norwegian-born to immigrant backgrounds have not experienced discrimination because of their immigrant background in the last year. Nevertheless, many do have such experiences. A high proportion face discrimination at the workplace, during their search for work and in education. In addition, some also experience it in the public sphere. Those with parents from Pakistan and Turkey are subjected to discrimination more often than those with backgrounds from Sri Lanka and Vietnam.
Attitudes, values and trust
Norwegian-born to immigrant parents’ trust in social institutions is on a par with that of the general population, but trust in other people is somewhat lower. As in the general population, most Norwegian-born to immigrant parents believe that racism, deriding religion and/or bullying/harassment should not be tolerated. A larger proportion of Norwegian-born to immigrant parents support various values of equality than the rest of the population, however most of the former also believe that the role of housewife can be satisfying.
Norwegian-born to immigrant parents consider their health to be good and, as in the rest of the population of the same age group, have few functional impairments. Mental health problems are somewhat more common among Norwegian-born to immigrant parents than among their peers in the general population. When it comes to lifestyle habits like exercise, smoking and alcohol consumption, more gender disparities are found than in the rest of the population. There are also major disparities in lifestyle habits according to the parents' country of birth.
The income level of Norwegian-born to immigrant parents from Turkey, Pakistan, Vietnam and Sri Lanka is 15 per cent lower than those of the same age in the general population. Nevertheless, there are few disparities in the perception of financial manoeuvrability between these groups. A larger proportion of Norwegian-born to immigrant parents who have moved out of their parents’ home have problems paying unexpected expenses and find housing costs burdensome.