366029
/en/jord-skog-jakt-og-fiskeri/statistikker/stjord/aar
366029
statistikk
2018-12-06T08:00:00.000Z
Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing
en
stjord, Structure of agriculture, farming, farmers, dairy farmers, meat producers, corn producers, farmland, livestock, farmland by use (for example corn, potatoes, pastures)Agriculture , Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing
true

Structure of agriculture

Preliminary figures for 2018 will be published on 12 February 2019

Updated

Next update

Key figures

1.9 %

fewer agricultural holdings

Structure of agriculture
2017Per cent
2016 - 20172007 - 2017
Number of holdings, total40 338-1.9-19.2
Natural person38 273-2.0-18.5
Legal person2 065-0.9-31.1
Agricultural area in use. Decares9 851 1160.1-4.5
Fully cultivated land, decares8 045 062-0.5-6.2
Agricultural area per holding. Decares244.22.118.1
Holdings keeping domestic animals of various kinds
Cow12 764-0.4-28.6
Sheep 1 year and over14 450-1.3-9.5
Pigs, total2 3513.4-20.8
Hens2 1182.912.7
Holdings cultivating various crops
Grain and oil seeds10 955-2.2-27.4
Potato1 697-9.6-53.8
Meadows for mowing and pastures31 508-2.4-17.6

See more tables on this subject

Table 1 
Number of animals per holding keeping various kinds of animal, by county and size of holding

Number of animals per holding keeping various kinds of animal, by county and size of holding
CattleSheep 1 year and overDairy goatsPigs for breedingPigs for slaughteringHens
TotalCows, totalDiary cowsBeef cows
200746.117.618.511.556.082.556.5173.81 885.1
200848.418.619.812.057.786.160.6182.91 982.9
200949.619.020.512.560.888.763.6196.42 100.8
201051.720.021.413.462.491.266.6209.62 140.1
201153.220.622.114.062.894.171.2217.82 198.1
201255.221.523.414.462.3100.274.9230.02 221.7
201356.322.024.114.863.3103.076.6229.82 147.5
201457.722.524.615.461.7109.480.8235.32 101.8
201559.823.325.516.063.5110.983.6232.62 096.4
201661.923.926.116.865.3115.583.0227.32 100.2
201763.424.526.917.165.1113.477.4230.12 067.9
 
2017
Østfold76.729.237.320.038.6-67.9276.64 258.3
Akershus and Oslo74.828.834.421.843.864.075.8239.31 695.1
Hedmark72.227.925.925.571.579.291.4309.63 439.9
Oppland65.324.924.819.776.6101.376.3222.91 408.4
Buskerud57.223.825.520.573.298.448.364.61 366.8
Vestfold79.932.439.825.040.7-69.0293.92 541.7
Telemark43.218.323.915.354.896.163.0166.71 323.9
Aust-Agder44.318.522.914.151.0-34.0146.41 649.2
Vest-Agder51.920.122.214.846.9-83.1144.3378.4
Rogaland74.927.532.714.675.3139.399.4239.74 349.3
Hordaland40.617.221.19.344.181.846.5113.2616.5
Sogn og Fjordane42.617.819.78.950.7110.433.2120.4624.1
Møre og Romsdal60.724.127.513.553.0157.635.6177.5954.4
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)66.325.127.915.386.124.043.0126.22 136.1
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)79.328.830.120.470.782.585.6268.63 857.0
Nordland65.824.426.816.487.6131.396.4239.9555.8
Troms - Romsa53.622.323.614.596.8130.630.5137.0510.6
Finnmark - Finnmárku67.328.028.716.077.4-43.0128.5512.3
Agricultural area in use
- 49 decares51.723.039.86.824.592.7114.0224.23 439.1
50 - 99 decares24.111.518.56.736.676.755.7135.9512.2
100 - 199 decares31.513.415.810.158.7100.557.3195.01 191.8
200 - 299 decares46.218.319.314.584.8125.165.6200.71 656.1
300 - 499 decares69.526.126.919.5103.9154.773.4257.32 194.8
500 decares or more125.643.743.728.9127.1162.689.4300.14 006.8

Table 2 
Domestic animals

Domestic animals
201720162015201420132012201120102009200820072006200520042003
Horses27 20329 93031 69433 11734 45236 34036 42436 71235 62534 38732 94631 15430 01929 02928 531
Cattle, total885 292872 145853 327840 000853 655861 924864 139874 529878 134891 170905 515922 976933 698943 208956 916
Cows312 954307 307303 048299 876303 897306 582305 239308 316306 288311 520314 309318 458320 837325 368329 698
Diary cows219 265221 485224 298223 997228 895233 257233 347238 442239 637248 283253 364259 084265 186271 970278 137
Beef cows93 68985 82278 75075 87975 00273 32571 89269 87466 65163 23760 94559 37455 65153 39851 561
Sheep, total2 417 8132 477 4002 380 4912 287 4102 273 9412 229 7342 300 4712 308 2912 289 8622 250 4712 267 1342 360 0622 423 0412 466 9652 481 073
Sheep under 1 year1 477 4991 522 8041 462 1501 401 3111 362 4841 324 1281 380 0481 385 7721 382 2991 352 5871 372 6511 431 5761 468 3031 500 4571 494 434
Sheep, 1 year and over940 314954 596918 341886 099911 457905 606920 423922 519907 563897 884894 483928 486954 738966 508986 639
Goats, total65 56468 64667 00764 36164 12865 68367 23267 48568 27369 46771 98772 20773 05171 84372 393
Dairy goats33 91334 98233 70231 51533 06435 15435 47636 65037 95938 85341 16142 36544 53245 09545 692
Pigs, total851 998854 005848 813842 484851 058855 704854 334850 383845 019828 243837 892836 426824 237825 548790 717
Pigs for breeding89 47992 58095 77194 67096 86296 59697 26397 586100 95499 61899 216102 483100 747100 88697 106
Sows for breeding87 67390 55192 31892 65294 78494 04595 13295 01298 09096 89297 21899 74498 69998 65994 731
Boars for breeding1 8062 0293 4532 0182 0782 5512 1312 5742 8642 7261 9982 7392 0482 2272 375
Other pigs762 519761 425753 042747 814754 196759 108757 071752 797744 065728 625738 676733 943723 490724 662693 611
Hens4 379 9114 339 1004 331 2094 245 6114 168 2804 019 0463 892 8613 952 8573 897 0493 668 4353 542 0943 362 9693 415 0793 528 5053 265 644
Chicks bred for laying hens717 4641 553 5321 551 6121 540 7941 473 9881 062 4831 195 664966 7831 444 8471 280 1371 386 6411 318 7841 298 4681 410 7011 205 364
Chicks for slaughtering15 642 77213 918 81214 583 62416 565 06615 974 60714 406 44211 782 41511 854 14813 159 33613 099 62312 606 07510 840 7188 881 7368 039 6318 108 441

Table 3 
Agricultural area per holding, by county.

Agricultural area per holding, by county.
201720162015201420132012201120102009200820072006200520042003
The whole country244.2239.2234.7229.4225.8221.7219.0215.8212.7209.8206.7202.0195.4187.3178.7
2017
Østfold336.0333.9327.0321.8313.0307.8301.2297.7293.3288.2285.4280.1276.1266.0257.4
Akershus and Oslo367.0361.2355.9350.7345.8336.6327.1321.5316.8314.6311.3302.4293.5283.1274.0
Hedmark332.5323.6313.9305.3301.1294.0287.1281.8275.8268.4262.7255.9247.5236.1226.9
Oppland224.2219.9214.8209.0205.2202.6200.0198.9196.5194.2192.7188.6185.4178.6171.5
Buskerud233.9231.3225.5223.3221.6219.0218.3215.0214.9210.1204.2196.7188.0179.3169.0
Vestfold292.0285.1277.4274.1268.6261.3257.9253.8247.7245.0240.6232.8225.0219.8212.2
Telemark173.4172.3168.9165.3163.5159.5157.6155.8155.4156.8154.3149.8144.2136.3128.5
Aust-Agder160.2160.2161.8159.5159.4158.3157.4152.8154.7156.6152.6149.7142.4137.3127.4
Vest-Agder173.0169.8168.0164.7162.1159.3162.4159.0161.0162.0158.2158.3150.5143.6133.0
Rogaland237.9234.6230.1223.2220.7216.7215.0210.6206.3203.5199.9195.9188.4181.3177.4
Hordaland132.3129.4128.1126.4125.6125.2126.4125.5124.1121.3120.9120.6114.3108.7101.4
Sogn og Fjordane148.4145.2143.6141.4139.0137.3136.8135.5133.7132.7129.3124.7120.9115.8109.9
Møre og Romsdal211.5203.2200.5194.3193.4190.0188.2187.0183.2181.0177.4171.9166.6159.4151.7
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)263.9257.6252.4248.0244.7240.0236.6233.2227.6226.0220.9216.8211.5203.3193.9
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)287.1279.7273.0265.1258.4253.0249.3245.2240.7237.6233.8231.1224.5217.1208.1
Nordland269.7258.8254.5245.2238.6232.4228.8225.4224.6221.8224.1218.7211.8202.2190.7
Troms - Romsa270.5256.6255.3241.3235.6226.3228.5220.6215.5211.6204.4199.0189.9182.2169.4
Finnmark - Finnmárku304.3295.7289.3286.9285.1281.0270.6255.6264.0251.1251.0244.9232.1228.1218.0

Table 4 
Holdings by size of agricultural area in use and county

Holdings by size of agricultural area in use and county
Holdings, total- 49 decares50 - 99 decares100 - 199 decares200 - 299 decares300 - 499 decares500 decares or more
200358 2318 21112 23018 66910 4046 4242 293
200455 5077 04711 24317 75410 3546 6312 478
200553 0036 41110 14116 76410 1866 8172 684
200651 2185 9989 59715 9019 8366 9632 923
200749 9356 1718 87515 1959 5347 0643 096
200848 8256 2138 66014 4819 1987 0313 242
200947 6886 2738 36313 8678 7976 9883 400
201046 6246 2448 11513 4408 4446 8573 524
201145 6126 0607 99212 9298 2446 7703 617
201244 7946 1437 80612 5047 9526 6743 715
201343 7265 9977 56712 0607 6926 5393 871
201443 0225 9767 42711 6797 4046 4904 046
201542 0185 5107 32811 4497 1576 3854 189
201641 1215 3727 14311 0286 9676 3054 306
201740 3385 3686 79110 6536 7766 2804 470
 
2017
Østfold2 179194244509394402436
Akershus and Oslo2 060197244469311366473
Hedmark3 156327401664523608633
Oppland4 4514467501 390857658350
Buskerud2 168261439613345275235
Vestfold1 380184220375179198224
Telemark1 39529136837514212198
Aust-Agder702191137176917433
Vest-Agder1 07823623626913714753
Rogaland4 1866025771 070781731425
Hordaland3 08382783778735720669
Sogn og Fjordane2 87748770897643521853
Møre og Romsdal2 549320498701455393182
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)2 789231405750546536321
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)3 027267325729607667432
Nordland2 071203243512409430274
Troms - Romsa88666124227157196116
Finnmark - Finnmárku301383561505463

Table 5 
Total number of holdings and holdings by type of holder.

Total number of holdings and holdings by type of holder.
Holdings, totalNatural personLegal person
TotalGeneral partnership (joint operations)Joint-stock company, institution etc.
1Comprise mainly joint operations with milk production.
2Comprise mainly holdings in horticulture.
200553 00350 4762 5272 184343
200651 21848 4172 8012 429372
200749 93546 9392 9962 582414
200848 82545 6793 1462 667479
200947 68844 6523 0362 533503
201046 62443 7662 8582 379479
201145 61242 9392 6732 164509
201244 79442 3032 4911 994497
201343 72641 3312 3951 902493
201443 02240 7302 2921 795497
201542 01839 7672 2511 704547
201641 12139 0372 0841 546538
201740 33838 2732 0651 467598
 
2017
Østfold2 1792 099805426
Akershus and Oslo2 0601 972883355
Hedmark3 1563 0311258936
Oppland4 4514 22023118942
Buskerud2 1682 0651035152
Vestfold1 3801 297833152
Telemark1 3951 339562234
Aust-Agder702670321517
Vest-Agder1 0781 025533320
Rogaland4 1863 92626019763
Hordaland3 0832 9441399841
Sogn og Fjordane2 8772 74513210626
Møre og Romsdal2 5492 38916013327
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)2 7892 6551349539
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)3 0272 83619116328
Nordland2 0711 94312810622
Troms - Romsa886843432914
Finnmark - Finnmárku30127427234
Agricultural area in use
0 decares11 1079521558570
1 - 4 decares217213438335
5 - 49 decares4 0893 798291138153
50 - 99 decares6 7916 56123014783
100 - 199 decares10 65310 37427920376
200 - 299 decares6 7766 55622016753
300 - 499 decares6 2806 00127923247
500 decares or more4 4703 89757349281

Table 6 
Agricultural area by use. Decares

Agricultural area by use. Decares
2017201620152014201320122011201020092008200720062005200420032002
Agricultural area in use, total9 851 1169 836 6089 860 3559 867 6799 871 4289 928 6349 989 18710 059 85710 142 87410 244 88310 320 19810 344 60710 354 23610 397 28810 403 85610 466 217
Cultivated land8 045 0628 081 5808 101 6278 111 3458 107 5158 163 2888 223 6378 301 4648 394 8108 493 5108 574 3778 627 6238 662 4628 736 9578 759 4258 831 474
 
Open fields and gardens3 318 2953 331 6523 302 4513 325 9753 350 4903 434 2593 476 1603 535 9853 566 3593 609 2453 668 8373 731 3233 804 4753 845 4683 854 2973 914 499
Grain and oil seeds2 891 0612 891 9822 861 9532 878 4652 895 1962 996 9943 039 5263 070 7023 104 1193 138 3193 181 0563 246 9453 319 0473 351 1953 342 1233 378 096
Wheat757 546667 687857 572791 699548 392669 825738 901720 820815 997931 697912 150857 477808 168853 414757 563637 917
Rye....0..00000:::::::
Triticale83 69145 587104 13060 94730 14414 76152 80567 59571 22181 69476 30260 58369 40072 36844 58024 066
Barley1 348 5681 375 5591 232 9161 265 0551 593 8711 565 3461 479 7461 461 8001 363 3851 299 0671 406 7491 524 2601 632 9871 490 2491 616 1541 806 020
Oats676 211761 692632 550719 765688 166692 189716 049761 143810 310777 747723 853739 486741 557866 627848 462800 163
Mixed grain and dry peas....0..00000-::----
Oil seeds23 11941 45734 78540 99934 62354 87352 02559 34443 20648 11462 00265 13966 93568 53775 364109 930
Potato117 282119 839118 355123 452126 340126 681128 963132 399137 485143 212144 658140 460137 344141 857145 758152 264
Roots for feed, crops for green fodder and silage....0..00000:::::::
Crops for green fodder and silage95 82090 72999 648112 783122 053105 190102 117119 319119 761130 566137 325149 117155 402176 259196 288206 181
Vegetables, field grown80 92682 90776 76875 64570 78271 24868 68371 22072 27176 28876 83969 77468 63564 64064 45162 186
Strawberries14 65715 45616 35216 78515 65415 12714 38513 90714 66015 23316 90417 89417 52417 54318 21118 949
Other crops113 230121 464117 971109 765101 499107 160112 178117 660108 28396 247103 47097 34394 88681 45171 39181 089
Fallow land5 3199 27511 4049 08018 96611 85910 19610 7789 7809 3808 5859 79011 63712 52316 07515 734
Meadows for mowing and pastures6 532 8216 504 9566 557 9046 541 7046 520 9386 494 3756 513 1396 523 8726 576 5156 635 6386 651 3616 613 2846 549 7616 551 8206 549 5596 551 718
Cultivatind meadows4 726 7674 749 9284 799 1764 785 3704 757 0494 729 0294 747 5894 765 4794 828 4514 884 2654 905 5404 896 3004 857 9874 891 4894 905 1284 916 975
Permanent grassland and surface cultivated land1 806 0541 755 0281 758 7281 756 3341 763 8891 765 3461 765 5501 758 3931 748 0641 751 3731 745 8211 716 9841 691 7741 660 3311 644 4311 634 743
Surfacecultivated meadows195 037195 171197 670198 514199 525201 281200 655207 036224 545243 272253 754261 102267 700269 506273 820280 666
Other infield pastureland1 611 0171 559 8571 561 0581 557 8201 564 3641 564 0651 564 8951 551 3571 523 5191 508 1011 492 0671 455 8821 424 0741 390 8251 370 6111 354 077

About the statistics

The statistics provide information about the number of agricultural holdings, their size and type of farming and the input of agricultural area and livestock.

 

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Agricultural holding

A single unit both technically and economically, which has single management, and which produces agricultural products. The holding is independent of municipality boundaries. The headquarter of the holding shall be located to an agricultural property.

Holder

The natural person or legal person which is responsible for operating the agricultural holding. In the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises natural person is registered as sole proprietorship. Other types of holder are general partnership, private limited company, foundation, state, municipality etc.

Holders are often classified into natural person and legal person. Furthermore, natural person is distributed by gender. Natural persons amount to about 95 per cent of the holders. Group holdings are classified as general partnership and included in legal person.

Agricultural area

Agricultural area is the sum of arable land, surface-cultivated meadows and infield pastureland.

Arable land

Agricultural area that has been ploughed and can still be ploughed. The area can be used for cultivation of field crops or meadows and pasture renewed by ploughing.

Surface- cultivated meadows

Agricultural area that is mostly cleared and levelled in such a way that it can be harvested mechanically.

Infield pastureland

Agricultural area that is suitable for grazing but cannot be mechanically harvested. At least 50 per cent of the area shall be covered by grasses or other plants that stand grazing.

Agricultural area in use

Agricultural land that is harvested at least once during a year, including sown or planted area of permanent crops, where no harvest has been produced so far. Arable land temporarily fallow for one year is included.

 Type of farming and standard output

The classification of agricultural holdings by farm type is common for all EU- and EEA-countries. The type of farming of a holding is based on the relative contribution of different crop and livestock enterprises to the holdings total production. Including 1999, the classification of farm type was based on standard gross margin (SGM) as the common measurement unit of the various crop and livestock enterprises. As from 2010, SGM is replaced by standard output (SO) as common measurement unit. At the same time, some other minor methodological changes were done. Due to this, the type of farming from 2010 and onwards is not fully comparable with earlier type of farming.

The standard output (SO) for crop and livestock products is the regional average monetary value of the agricultural output at farm gate price over a reference period of five years. The SO is excluded direct payments, value added tax and taxes on products.

The total standard output of an agricultural holding is the total SO for all crop and livestock products produced by the holding within one year, i.e. SO per area unit of relevant crops multiplied by the total crop areas, and SO per head of relevant livestock multiplied by the number of livestock.

Standard classifications

County and municipality where the headquarter of the holding is located, size of holding expressed in decares of utilised agricultural area, type of holder and type of farming of the holding.

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Structure of agriculture
Topic: Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing

Next release

Responsible division

Division for Primary Industry Statistics

Regional level

County, municipality

Frequency and timeliness

Annual, preliminary and final statistics

International reporting

Statistics are reported to both EU and FAO.

Microdata

Data file with anonymous individual data is stored at Statistics Norway.

Background

Background and purpose

The purpose is to obtain information about the number of agricultural holdings, their size and type of farming and the input of agricultural area and livestock in the agricultural industry.

Statistics Norway has carried out agricultural censuses in 1907, 1918, 1929, 1939, 1949, 1959, 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999 and 2010. The censuses in 1979, 1989 and 2010 comprised also all agricultural and forestry properties. Annually since 2000, Statistics Norway has updated a population of agricultural holdings and holders. The core of this population is holdings applying governmental subsidies, while other holdings are identified by matching several administrative and statistical registers.

Users and applications

The main users of the statistics are the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, the Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, the Agricultural Budget Commission, the Norwegian Farmers Union, the Norwegian Smallholders Union etc.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the statistics release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway's key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

The Norwegian Agriculture Agency is publishing statistics on livestock and use of agricultural area based on holdings applying governmental subsidies. Statistics Norway includes holdings which do not apply governmental subsidies when working out statistics on the structure of agricultural holdings. Holdings not applying governmental subsidies have in recent years constituted 1 - 2 per cent of all holdings and just one per cent of the utilised agricultural area.

Legal authority

Statistics Act §§2-1, 3-2.

EEA reference

Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council

Production

Population

The statistics comprises all active farms with production for sale. Active farms are defined as all holdings applying governmental subsidies together with a minor number of other holdings which cultivate crops or keep livestock above certain thresholds.

Data sources and sampling

Holdings applying governmental subsidies constitute the bulk of the annual population of holdings. Holdings not applying governmental subsidies were identified by combining information from various other administrative data sources and statistical registers. Important sources at Statistics Norway and outside are:

  • The Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises (Statistics Norway)
  • The Census of Agriculture 2010 (Statistics Norway)
  • Sample surveys of agriculture (Statistics Norway)
  • The Register of Approved Carcasses (Norwegian Agriculture Agency)
  • The Register of Deliveries of cereals and oil-seeds (Norwegian Agriculture Agency)
  • The Register of Bovine Animals (Norwegian Food Safety Authority)
  • The Income Tax Return including supplementary forms (Norwegian Tax Administration)

Collection of data, editing and estimations

The statistics are based on collocation of data files that have been separately edited when established.

1 - 2 per cent of the holdings do not apply governmental subsidies. For most of these holdings, utilised agricultural area and livestock numbers are derived from administrative or statistical registers.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

Figures are not presented if there is a risk of identifying any holding.

Comparability over time and space

Broadly speaking, the statistics are comparable with information from previous agricultural censuses. In censuses before 1999, the census date has mostly been 20 June. In the years 1999 - 2016, the census (Reference) date was 31 July, except for sheep. As from 2017, the reference date is 1 October.

Including 1979, censuses covered all cultivation of crops and all livestock, irrespective of holding size. However, in census publications, many tables were limited to holdings operating at least 5 decares of agricultural area. Almost all agriculture ran as business took place at these holdings, whereas holdings operating less than 5 decares generally represented hobby-like production for consumption in own household.

From 1989 to 1999 the number of joint operations (group holdings) with cow or goat milk production increased. When applying subsidies, these holdings were registered without utilised agricultural area. Areas used to produce feed for the joint operations were registered on holdings belonging to the partners in the joint operations. Due to this, the threshold of 5 decares agricultural area was repealed. The change also included horticultural holdings. As from the Census of Agriculture 1999 and onwards, the statistics include holdings operating less than 5 decares of utilised agricultural area on condition that crop areas (i.e. vegetables, fruit, berries, nurseries, flowers and ornamental plants) or livestock numbers are above certain thresholds.

Including 1999, the holding was limited by municipalty boundaries. As from 1999, holdings may have activity in several municipalities, e.g. operating rented agricultural area. In statistics, all owned or rented agricultural area operated by the holding is allocated to the municipality where the headquarter of the holding is located. Increase in renting of agricultural area may cause significant changes in total agricultural area for some municipalities.

In 2009, a governmental subsidy was introduced for holdings keeping at least 25 beehives. This caused an increase of about 300 holdings with solely beehives.

Agricultural area and crops

In previous censuses including 1989, lawns and ornamental gardens on holdings were included in the agricultural area. In the Census of Agriculture 1989, lawns and ornamental gardens amounted to 46 000 decares. As from the Census of Agriculture 1999, lawns and ornamental gardens are excluded.

In the 1990-ties, the agricultural area subsidies were extended to unfertilized fenced-in pasture, so-called infield pastureland. In previous years infield pastureland had to be fertilized to be eligible for subsidies and were referred to as fertilized pastureland. In previous censuses, fertilized pastureland was part of natural meadows and surface-cultivated meadows. The introduction of infield pastureland has included some new areas as agricultural area. From 1989 to 1999, the total area of surface-cultivated meadows and infield pastureland increased by 418 000 decares. This increase must also be seen in the light of the fact that placing more emphasis on area-based subsidies made it more profitable for the holdings to include marginal agricultural land in their subsidy applications. Another reason is the introduction of official requirements regarding area for spreading of manure.

It should be noticed that as from the Census of Agriculture 1999, crop areas are given in decares without decimals. In previous years, all crop areas were given in decares with one decimal. Thus, areas less than one decare is rarely included in 1999 and onwards. This is most related to potatoes, field-grown vegetables, fruit and berries, and particularly for the number of holdings growing these crops. Including 2016, greenhouse area was reported in m2. As from 2017, greenhouse area is reported in decares without decimal.

The utilised Agricultural area was at a peak in 2001 With 10,47 million decares. From 2005 to 2013, the agricultural area, included unutilised Agricultural area, decreased by 4.7 per cent. According to information given by the Norwegian Agriculture Agency, introduction of digital farm maps in this period caused about 3.3 per cent decrease of the Agricultural area. A reason for this decrease could be more accurate area measuring. Another reason could be that previous decrease in areas was not recorded before the new maps were implemented. The decrease of agricultural area excluded new maps is estimated to 1.4 per cent in the period 2005 - 2013.

Livestock
In the years 1999 - 2016, the livestock numbers refer to census (reference) date 31 July, except sheep for which the date is 1 June, or the day they are released for grazing. In censuses before 1999, the census date has mostly been 20 June. Changing the date by 1-2 months may have some influence on the livestock figures. However, optimizing the number of animals in relation to the reference date for subsidies is probably of more significance. As from 2017, the reference date is 1 October for most livestock.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The most important source of error is that holders may fill in incorrect information when applying governmental subsidies. In most cases this will be discovered and corrected by the local agricultural authority. Nevertheless, errors that do not influence the holders amount of subsidy can be ignored. Earlier, errors may also arise from the scanning of forms despite of the fact that controls were executed.

Regarding holdings not applying governmental subsidies, the statistics are based on several data sources which are updated at different times. These registers may contain errors or lack of information. E.g., estimates of cereal areas based on deliveries of grain and estimates of livestock numbers based on approved carcasses may deviate from the real figures.

Sometimes it is difficult to decide whether a holding not applying for governmental subsidies is operated on the reference date or is ceased. There is also a risk that not all eligible holdings are identified during the examination of data sources.

Revision

Not relevant