430552
/en/energi-og-industri/statistikker/energibalanse/aar
430552
statistikk
2020-10-27T08:00:00.000Z
Energy and manufacturing;Energy and manufacturing
en
energibalanse, Production and consumption of energy, energy balance and energy account, energy balance, energy producing industries, energy consumption by user groups, energy consumption in households, energy products (for example crude oil, petrol, natural gas, biofuel), renewable energy, fuel wood consumptionEnergy , Oil and gas , Energy and manufacturing
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Production and consumption of energy, energy balance and energy account

The figures have been updated and represent the final figures for the time series 1990-2019

Updated

Next update

Not yet determined

Key figures

16 %

increase in total energy consumption (excluding non-energy use) since 1990

Supply and use of energy in Norway, Energy balance. Main figures.
TWhChange in percent
20192018 - 20191990 - 2019
1Production of primary energy products such as crude oil, natural gas, hydropower etc.
2Final energy consumption
3Commerce and public services, agriculture and fishing
Production12 272-5.664.9
Imports1333.470.7
Exports2 082-4.175.2
 
Consumption2214-1.315.7
Manufacturing and mining73-0.20.3
Transport51-3.527.6
Households48-1.418.4
Other342-0.433.1

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Supply and use of energy in Norway, Energy balance. TWh

Supply and use of energy in Norway, Energy balance. TWh
20182019Change i percent
All energy productsAll energy products2018 - 2019
1 Primary energy production2 4072 272-5.6
2 Imports1291333.4
3 Exports2 1722 082-4.1
4 International bunkers99-6.2
5 Stock changes-69-247.9
6 Total energy supply (1+2-3-4+5)348324-7.1
7 Transformation processes-2-346.8
8 Energy industries own use7373-0.4
9 Distribution losses9107.9
10 Final consumption (11+12)245243-1.1
11 Non energy consumption29290.8
12 Final energy consumption217214-1.3
12.1 Manufacturing, const.and non-fuel mining industries7373-0.2
12.2 Transport5351-3.5
12.3 Other9190-1.0
13 Statistical difference (6+7-8-9-10)19-5-125.3

Table 2 
Supply and use of energy in Norway by energy product, Energy balance. TWh

Supply and use of energy in Norway by energy product, Energy balance. TWh
2019
Coal and coal productsNatural gasOil and oil products (excl. bio)BiofuelsWasteElectricityDistrict heating
1 Primary energy production0.91 174.6946.812.65.2131.90.0
2 Imports9.00.2105.56.40.012.40.0
3 Exports0.61 111.5957.30.70.012.30.0
4 International bunkers0.00.68.20.00.00.00.0
5 Stock changes-0.10.68.70.00.00.00.0
6 Total energy supply (1+2-3-4+5)9.363.295.618.35.2132.00.0
7 Transformation processes-0.8-3.6-1.2-2.7-3.62.46.9
8 Energy industries own use0.052.610.00.00.010.50.0
9 Distribution losses0.00.10.40.20.08.30.8
10 Final consumption (11+12)8.211.184.715.31.5115.66.1
11 Non energy consumption0.66.122.20.00.00.00.0
12 Final energy consumption7.65.162.515.31.5115.66.1
12.1 Manufacturing, const.and non-fuel mining industries7.63.510.03.61.346.60.6
12.2 Transport0.01.043.55.70.00.60.0
12.3 Other0.00.69.06.00.268.45.5
13 Statistical difference (6+7-8-9-10)0.2-4.3-0.70.10.00.00.0

Table 3 
Supply and use of energy products in Norway, Energy product balance

Supply and use of energy products in Norway, Energy product balance
2019Coal and coal products (ktonn)Natural gas (mSm3)Gasoline and road diesel (excl. bio.) (ktonn)Oil and other oil products (ktonn)Biofuels (ktonn)Renewable waste (ktonn)Non-renewable waste (ktonn)Electricity (GWh)District heating (GWh)
1 Total production617119 1647 04189 1882 466833675135 2926 878
2 Imports1 157171 6467 2717420012 3530
3 Exports79113 1655 60874 337840012 3090
4 International bunkers062068300000
5 Stock changes-7651871500000
6 Total energy supply (1+2-3-4+5)1 6886 0203 09622 1543 124833675135 3366 878
7 Transformation input38337126117 0815517454979270
8 Energy industries own use04 940086310010 5472
9 Distribution losses1211694-66314008 257751
10 Final consumption (11+12)1 2581 1332 0085 0732 54788178115 6426 125
11 Non energy consumption8061701 92600000
12 Final energy consumption1 1795162 0083 1472 54788178115 6426 125
12.1 Manufacturing, const.and non-fuel mining industries1 17835407917508816146 629580
12.2 Transport01012 640982567005870
12.3 Other06117411 23101868 4265 545
12.3.1 Agriculture and forestry01611460001 8879
12.3.2 Fishing019099-002090
12.3.3 Commerce and public services02504756301825 7823 988
12.3.4 Households02-3283491 1680040 5481 548
13 Statistical difference (6-7-8-9-10)35-435460-5261100-360
Memo01: Gas flared off on oil fields and terminals03040000000
Memo02: Venting of natural gas on oil fields06200000

Table 4 
Energy consumption in households in Norway. Gwh, kWh

Energy consumption in households in Norway. Gwh, kWh
20152016201720182019
Electricity (GWh)38 69040 04540 44240 83740 548
Coal and coke (GWh)-----
Light heating oil and special distillate (GWh)725807656421105
Heating kerosene (GWh)18717412411210
LPG, heavy fuel oil (GWh)578990101167
Fuel wood (GWh)5 6205 4115 7065 6475 474
Natural gas (GWh)3942373718
District heating (GWh)1 0371 2121 3651 4081 548
Gasoline (GWh)8 9178 3357 9917 6057 015
Road diesel, colored (GWh)358345332324315
Road diesel, uncolored (GWh)10 65410 5839 2719 5678 590
Bioetanol and biodiesel (GWh)6751 5582 3351 7612 181
Total inclusive gasoline and road diesel in cars (GWh)66 96068 60268 35067 82165 972
Total except gasoline and road diesel in cars (GWh)46 71448 12548 75348 88848 186
Total energy consumption per household (kWh)28 70529 03328 75528 15027 046
Total energy consumption per person (kWh)12 90213 10212 95312 76812 382
Electricity consumption per household (kWh)16 58616 94817 01416 95016 623
Electricity consumption per person (kWh)7 4557 6487 6647 6887 610
Population5 189 8945 236 1515 276 9685 311 9165 328 212
Number of households2 332 7222 362 8842 376 9712 409 2572 439 242

About the statistics

The energy balance shows total production, transformation and use of all energy products within Norwegian territory. It shows the production and use of different energy products for different purposes, and whether the energy products are extracted from renewable or non-renewable sources.

The energy account shows all energy products produced and used by industries in the Norwegian economy, including abroad. Also included are figures for energy intensity and figures from decomposition analyzes of changes in energy consumption. The national accounts definitions are followed.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Energy balance posts

Energy products - All products used for the production, conversion and use of energy in the economy (including households). Energy products are used for energy purposes and non-energy purposes (eg natural gas as raw material in the production of chemical raw materials and lubricants). Exceptions are renewable products such as biomass and waste not used for energy purposes.

Primary energy products - products extracted directly from natural resources such as crude oil, natural gas and coal.

Secondary energy products - products that are produced by transformation of other energy fuels or energy, such as petrol produced from crude oil.

Primary production is the capture or extraction of fuels or energy from natural energy flows, the biosphere and natural reserves of fossil fuels within the national territory in a form suitable for use. This applies, for example, to coal, wood, crude oil and natural gas.

Production of secondary energy products - production of energy products with product input of other energy products, either primary or secondary. These are, for example, petroleum products that are produced from crude oil in the oil refineries or district heating produced by the incineration of waste.

Imports of energy products comprise all fuel and other energy products entering the national territory.

Exports of energy products comprise all fuel and other energy products leaving the national territory.

Stock changes - the increase (stock build) or decrease (stock draw) in the quantity of stocks over the reporting period and thus are calculated as a difference between the closing and opening stocks. Calculated as the difference between inventory at the end of the year for two periods (+ = decrease, - = increase).

Bunkers – a term in energy balance that includes amounts of fuel delivered to international ships and aviation regardless of nationality for consumption during international voyages transporting goods or passengers.

Transformation is the process where the movement of part or all of the energy content of an energy product entering a process to one or more different energy products leaving the process (e.g., coking coal to coke, crude oil to petroleum products, and heavy fuel oil to electricity).

Energy sector - mainly industries that use fuels and energy for the direct support of the production, and preparation for use, of fuels and energy, except heat not sold. In EB, this includes crude oil and natural gas extraction, coal extraction, as well as consumption in oil refineries, hydropower plants, thermal power plants, combined heat and power plants and district heating plants.

Own consumption in the energy producing sector - a term in energy balance that includes all consumption of energy products in the energy producing sector, excluding transformation input (energy products used in transformation processes for other energy products).

Final consumption - all domestic energy consumption excluding consumption in the energy producing sector.

Final consumption for energy use - Energy products used for production, light, heating, transport and as a reducing agent in industry.

Reduction agent - some coal, coke and charcoal are used as a reduction agent in the production of metals and chemical raw materials. This consumption is considered as part of energy products used for energy purposes in EB.

Non-energy use - energy products used as a product input in the production of goods. This mainly involves the efforts of petroleum products in the production of chemical raw materials, natural gas used in methanol production and petrol coke used in the production of, for example, coal electrodes.

Transport - in EB, this item includes energy products used for the transport of goods or persons within Norwegian territory irrespective of the industry in which the transport occurs. This post includes the categories road transport, rail transport, air transport, coastal transport and other transport.

Statistical error - the difference between the total energy supply and final energy consumption.

Energy account posts

Energy carriers

Sources of energy are called energy bearers. The units used to measure energy bearers are consistent with those normally used in the primary statistics. Coal, coke, crude oil and petroleum products are measured in tonnes, natural gas in standard cubic metres (Sm3), fuel wood, black liquor and waste and other gases in tonnes of oil equivalents (toe) and electric power and district heating in GWh. The energy bearers included in the energy statistics are specified below:

Coal: Anthracite, hard coal and brown coal

Coke: Coal coke and petrol coke

Biofuel: Fuel wood, pellets, briquettes, wood waste, wood chippings, sawdust, shavings, bark, black liquor, biodiesels, bioethanol and charcoal

Garbage/waste: Different types of garbage/waste

Crude oil: Crude oil

Petrol: Naphtha, auto petrol, extraction petrol and aviation fuel

Kerosene: Kerosene type jet fuel, heating kerosene and other kerosene

Middle distillates: Auto diesel, marine gas oil, light heating oils and heavy distillate

Heavy oil: Heavy fuel oils

Waste oil: Waste oil, paint and varnish

Liquefied gases: LPG (propane and butane) and NGL (propane, butane and ethane)

Natural gas: Natural gas in gaseous form and LNG (liquefied natural gas)

Other gases: Refinery gas, fuel gas, methane and CO gas

Electricity: Priority and non-priority power

District heating: Hot water and steam distributed via a district-heating network

 

Energy content, density and fuel efficiency

     

Fuel efficiency

Energy commodity

Theoretical energy content

Density

Manufacturing and mining

Transport

Other consumption

Coal

28,1 GJ/tonne

..

0,80

0,10

0,60

Coal coke

28,5 GJ/tonne

..

0,80

-

0,60

Petrol coke

35,0 GJ/tonne

..

0,80

-

-

Crude oil

42,3 GJ/tonne = 36,0 GJ/m 3

0,85 tonne/m 3

..

..

..

Refinery gas

48,6 GJ/tonne

..

0,95

..

0,95

Natural gas (2015) 2

35,31 GJ/1000 Sm 3

0,85 kg/Sm 3

0,95

..

0,95

Liquefied propane and butane (LPG)

46,1 GJ/tonne = 24,4 GJ/m 3

0,53 tonne/m 3

0,95

..

0,95

Fuel gas

50,0 GJ/tonne

..

..

..

..

Petrol

43,9 GJ/tonne = 32,5 GJ/m 3

0,74 tonne/m 3

0,20

0,20

0,20

Kerosene

43,1 GJ/tonne = 34,9 GJ/m 3

0,81 tonne/m 3

0,80

0,30

0,75

Diesel oil, gas oil and light fuel oil

43,1 GJ/tonne = 36,2 GJ/m 3

0,84 tonne/m 3

0,80

0,30

0,80

Heavy distillate

43,1 GJ/tonne = 37,9 GJ/m 3

0,88 tonne/m 3

0,80

0,30

0,70

Heavy fuel oil

40,6 GJ/tonne = 39,8 GJ/m 3

0,98 tonne/m 3

0,90

0,30

0,75

Methane/landfillgas

50,2 GJ/tonn

..

..

..

..

Ved

16,8 GJ/tonne = 8,4 GJ/fast m 3

0,5 tonne/fm 3

0,65

-

0,65

Wood waste (dry matter)

16,25-18 GJ/tonne = 6,5-7,2 GJ/fm 3

0,4 tonne/fm 3

..

..

..

Garbage/waste

10,5 GJ/tonne

..

..

..

..

Electricity

3,6 GJ/MWh

..

1,00

1,00

1,00

Uranium

430-688 TJ/tonne

..

..

..

..

1 The theoretical energy content of a particular energy commodity may vary. The figures therefore indicate mean values.

2 Sm 3 = standard cubic metre (15 °C og 1 atmospheric pressure). Net Calorific Value (NCV).

Source: Energy statistics, Statistic Norway, Norwegian Petroleum Industry Association (NP), Norwegian Association of Energy Users and Suppliers, Norwegian Building Research Institute.

Energy units

 

PJ

TWh

Mtoe

Mbarrels

MSm 3 o.e. oil

MSm 3 o.e. gas

quad

1 PJ

1

0,278

0,024

0,18

0,028

0,025

0,00095

1 TWh

3,6

1

0,085

0,64

0,100

0,090

0,0034

1 Mtoe

42,3

11,75

1

7,49

1,18

1,055

0,040

1 Mbarrels

5,65

1,57

0,13

1

0,16

0,141

0,0054

1 MSm 3 o.e.olje

36,0

10,0

0,9

6,4

1

0,90

0,034

1 MSm 3 o.e. gas

39,9

11,1

0,9

7,1

1,11

1

0,038

quad

1053

292,5

24,9

186,4

29,29

26,33

1

1 Mtoe = 1 million tonnes (crude) oil equivalents
1 Mbarrels = 1 million barrels crude oil (1 barrel = 0.159 m3)
1 MSm3 o.e. oil = 1 million Sm3 oil
1 MSm3 o.e. gas = 1 billion Sm3 natural gas
1 quad = 1015 Btu (British thermal units)
1 joule (J) = 1 watt x 1 second
Source: Energy statistics, Statistics Norway and Norwegian Petroleum Directorate.

Commonly used prefixes

Name

Symbol

Factor

Kilo

k

10 3

Mega

M

10 6

Giga

G

10 9

Tera

T

10 12

Peta

P

10 15

Exa

E

10 18

Production
In the energy sources balance sheet/energy balance sheet, energy production is divided into primary and derived energy bearers. Primary energy bearers include those that are produced without the input of other energy bearing raw materials. The primary energy bearers are coal, fuel wood, crude oil, naphtha, NGL and natural gas. The production of derived energy bearers includes the production of energy bearers in which other energy bearers are used as input, for example, petroleum products manufactured from crude oil in oil refineries or district heating produced through the combustion of waste.

Electricity is treated as primary production in the energy accounts and as derived production in the energy sources balance sheet. The opposite is true of fuel wood. The production of derived energy bearers outside the conversion sectors, for example the production of fuel wood and fuel gas is included in the energy accounts under "other supply". The energy accounts define the sectors that produce primary energy bearers as "extraction sectors" and those that produce derived energy bearers as "conversion sectors". Together, the extraction and conversion sectors are referred to as "energy sectors". The extraction sectors include coal mining and the production of crude oil, natural gas and hydroelectric power. The conversion sectors include oil refineries, thermal power stations, district heating plants and dual-purpose power stations.

Input of intermediate goods In the energy sources balance sheet, energy converted (item 8) represents the volume of energy bearers used as input in the production of derived energy bearers. This item includes inter alia the crude oil that goes to the refineries. The energy sector consumption not used to produce other energy bearers, but used for heating, etc, is entered under consumption by the energy sectors (item 9). In the energy accounts, all input, including input to conversion and input to heating, are entered under "energy sector inputs".

Raw materials
The term "raw material" refers to energy bearers that are not used for energy. This mainly comprises input of petroleum products used to manufacture chemical raw materials. For coal and coke, it is difficult to distinguish between raw material consumption and energy consumption. Accordingly, both the energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet consider all industrial consumption of coal and coke as energy consumption. Raw material consumption of other energy bearers are separated in the energy sources balance sheet (item 10), but distributed by industry and fuel consumption in the energy accounts.

Consumption outside energy sectors
The consumption outside the energy sectors, net domestic consumption in the energy sources balance sheet (item 13), of coal, fuel wood, electricity and district heating is the same in both systems. There is a deviation in the consumption of LPG because the consumption of raw materials is included in the energy accounts. The consumption of gasoline, kerosene, middle distillates and heavy oil deviates because of different ways of treating international shipping, aviation and raw materials. The consumption of coal for the production of CO gas is included in energy converted in the energy sources balance sheet, while it is included in consumption outside the energy sectors in the energy accounts.

Transportation
The energy sources balance sheet has a separate item for energy consumed for transportation purposes (item 15). This means that the transport sector/item includes not only energy consumed by transport companies, but also consumption for transport purposes in other enterprises, including industries and households. The energy accounts place the consumption of all energy under the relevant consumer sector, regardless of whether the consumption refers to transportation, heating or processing. This leads to different ways of recording the transport oil, gasoline, kerosene type jet fuel, auto diesel, marine gas oil and heavy fuel oil. Aviation is treated differently in the two systems, as Norwegian transport companies' acquisitions abroad are included and purchases by foreign transport companies in Norway are deducted from the energy accounts. Military consumption of kerosene type jet fuel is entered under public administration, not under aviation.

International shipping
Regardless of a vessel's nationality, energy bearers supplied by Norwegian ports to vessels in international shipping are categorised as bunkering in the energy sources balance sheet and not included in the total consumption (item 4). International shipping is considered a separate transport sector in the energy accounts, so consumption is recorded under the item "consumption outside the energy sectors". The energy accounts also include Norwegian vessels' consumption of energy abroad. International shipping both buys and uses most of its fuel abroad. Correspondingly, the energy sources that foreign vessels buy directly in Norway are deducted.

Common energy unit for the energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet
Both the energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet are presented in two different types of units: in physical units (tonnes, GWh etc) and in a common energy unit, petajoule (PJ). Presented in PJ, the energy sources balance sheet is referred to as the energy balance sheet. The figures in PJ are calculated on basis of the figures measured in physical units, using factors for the theoretical energy content for each commodity. From 2006, some new tables are published, with all commodities presented in GWh.

The layout of the energy balance sheet differs from the layout of the energy sources balance sheet on several points: In the energy balance sheet, there is a column showing the total for all the energy commodities. There is also a column for waterfall energy, showing the primary stage for electricity produced by the hydroelectric power plants.

Item 1.2. "Production of derived energy bearers" has been moved to avoid double entries in the total column on the supply side.

Item 7. "Net domestic supply" shows the consumption of energy before the transformation processes begin. This level of measurement includes the production of primary energy bearers adjusted for imports, exports/bunkering and changes in stock. For example, crude oil is included in this calculation. To avoid double entries, the consumption of individual petroleum products derived from crude oil has not been included.

Item 13. "Net domestic consumption" shows the theoretical energy content of bearers delivered for end use - the energy supply. Thus the values at this level of measurement have a degree of efficiency utilisation of 100 per cent for all energy bearers on end consumption. Of course, in practice, this would be impossible. The loss of efficiency that occurs when the energy bearers are used to produce heat, run motors, etc is not taken into account. Take a furnace, for example: Some of the theoretical energy content will not reach the consumer as heat, because a furnace is not 100 per cent efficient. Chapter 6 in NOS Energy Statistics 2000 (see link below) contains a table showing the consumption of utilised energy. The consumption is calculated on the basis of figures from the energy balance, and the estimated thermal efficiency coefficient of different energy sources (see separate table).

In international statistics, the expression "Total primary energy supply" (TPES) is used. TPES = Total primary production + imports - exports - bunkering - changes in stocks.

The structure of the energy accounts in PJ differs only slightly from the energy accounts expressed in physical units.

Coal: Anthracite, hard coal and brown coal

Coke: Coal coke and petrol coke

Biofuel: Fuel wood, pellets, briquettes, wood waste, wood chippings, sawdust, shavings, bark, black liquor, biodiesels, bioethanol and charcoal

Garbage/waste: Different types of garbage/waste
Crude oil: Crude oil
Petrol: Naphtha, auto petrol, extraction petrol and aviation fuel
Kerosene: Kerosene type jet fuel, heating kerosene and other kerosene
Middle distillates: Auto diesel, marine gas oil, light heating oils and heavy distillate
Heavy oil: Heavy fuel oils
Waste oil: Waste oil, paint and varnish
Liquefied gases: LPG (propane and butane) and NGL (propane, butane and ethane)
Natural gas: Natural gas in gaseous form and LNG (liquefied natural gas)
Other gases: Refinery gas, fuel gas, methane and CO gas
Electricity: Priority and non-priority power
District heating: Hot water and steam distributed via a district-heating netwo

 

 

Standard classifications

Statistics Norway's classification of energy products and balance posts is in line with the International Standard for Energy Products (SIEC) and the UN's guidelines for comprising energy balances (International Recommendations for Energy Statistics).

The industrial classification used is an aggregated and somewhat modified version of the EU standard NACE. The figures are even more aggregated in the published tables. In 2009, from and including the reference year 2008, the industry classification in the energy accounts / balances was changed according to the new NACE standard SN2007.

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Production and consumption of energy, energy balance and energy account
Topic: Energy and manufacturing

Responsible division

Division for Energy, Environmental and Transport Statistics

Regional level

Only national figures are published. The figures for consumption of fossil fuels and bio fuel are also distributed by municipality for use as a basis for the calculation of emissions to air, but the distribution by municipality is not published. However, consumption of electricity by municipality and county is published in the annual electricity statistics:

https://www.ssb.no/en/energi-og-industri/statistikker/elektrisitet/aar 

Frequency and timeliness

The energy balance and energy accounts are published in June with data for the year T-1. The published time series are continuous from 1990.

International reporting

The energy balance sheet is reported annually to the IEA/OECD, Eurostat and the UN.

From the energy accounts, Physical Energy Flow Accounts (PEFA) are reported annually to Eurostat. The reporting is due in September two years after the end of the data year and comprises detailed tables of supply and consumption by industry and energy product. 

 

Microdata

All harmonized input data (before processing in the production of the energy balance and -accounts) are stored. All editing of metadata is also stored. In addition, the version of harmonized input data, metadata and results which constitutes the basis for each publishing is stored. Files are archived in csv-format using SAS Enterprise Guide.

Background

Background and purpose

The energy account and energy balance (EA/EB) show supply and consumption of energy products in Norway by different layouts and principles. In the EA/EB production system activity data for production, consumption, imports, exports, losses and stocks are compiled , and the results are published on ssb.no.

The purpose of the statistics:

- increase the relevance of energy statistics by producing comprehensive information on energy production and consumption in Norway, as well as import and export of energy;

- ensure comparability between different years and different countries;

- provide the opportunity to calculate relative contributions of different energy products or sectors to the country's totals;

- provide a basis for calculating CO2 emissions;

- provide a basis for calculating indicators (for example, energy intensities);

 

The statistics have been published annually since 1976. In 1993, Statistics Norway introduced a new industrial standard, based on the EU standard NACE. The energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet use an aggregated and somewhat modified version of this. It is somewhat more aggregated, partly due to that information about energy consumption not is available for all the NACE sectors. The nomenclature in the energy account /balances was adapted to the nomenclature in the national accounts (for 1995), but there are some discrepancies, partly because the nomenclature in the national accounts has changed since then. For the years 1990-92 the energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet have adapted the old industrial codes to this new classification. In a revision of the sector classification of the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises, some enterprises were reclassified and placed in other sectors from 1993. This means that the figures for energy consumption in some sectors are not fully comparable for the years prior to and after 1993. Prior to 1990, various sources were to some extent used in the energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet. From 1990, however, the data are consistent. The only differences between the energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet now are the principles and definitions.

Users and applications

The statistics are used by public and private institutions that work with different types of energy questions and analyses. Internally in Statistics Norway, the Division for Energy and Environmental Statistics, the Research Department and the Division for National Accounts are important users. Schools, the media and various organizations are other users of the statistics. The statistics form the basis for international reporting to the International Energy Agency (IEA), OECD and Eurostat (including recipients of Physical Energy Flow Acocounts - PEFA).

Equal treatment of users

Not relevant

Coherence with other statistics

Sales of petroleum products

The statistics on the sale of petroleum products is the data source that sets the framework for consumption of petroleum products in energy balance (EB). The statistics are based on annual reports from oil companies and import data from foreign trade statistics in Statistics Norway. Statistics on industry’s energy use (https://www.ssb.no/energi-ogindustri/statistikker/indenergi) is the main data source for consumption in industry and the mining industry. District heating statistics (https://www.ssb.no/energi-ogindustri/statistikker/jernvarme) is the source of data for the production and consumption of district heating in EB. Annual and monthly electricity statistics (https://www.ssb.no/energy-andindustry/statistikker/elektrisitet) are data sources for production, consumption, import and export of electricity in EB.

Emissions to air

Emissions statistics is the most important user of EB in Statistics Norway, and emissions are calculated annually through international controls for consistency between consumption figures in EB And emissions.

National accounts

The National Accounts (NR) is another important user of EB in Statistics Norway. NR uses selected data to, among other things, distribute total energy costs as inputs in the production of different energy products, and to control the production value of different energy products.

Electricity statistics

The annual and monthly electricity statistics is the data source for production and consumption of electricity in the energy balance / accounts. When finally and preliminary energy account / balance for year t -1 and t-2 respectively, (year t is the publishing year) is prepared during the autumn, figures from the annual electricity statistics are used in the final figures while figures from monthly statistics are used in the preliminary figures. The annual electricity statistics is not published before about 15 months after the reference year, and is due to this not available for the preliminary energy balance for year t-1 in the autumn. Figures in the annual electricity statistics and the energy balance (final figures) should in principle be the same, but there are some exceptions. Production plants, or plants that generates electricity for their own use mainly, should be included in the annual electricity statistics, but it can take some time before they are included, and are sometimes not included for all years. In these cases, we have in the energy balance added their production and consumption to the other figures in the annual electricity statistics.

There are also some differences in the contents in certain concepts. The net consumption of electricity is defined different in the energy balance and the electricity statistics. In the annual electricity statistics, this is defined as total production + imports - exports - consumption in power stations - pump consumption - losses and statistical differences. In the energy balance, consumption in other energy producing industries, such as district heating plants, oil and gas extraction, oil refineries and coal extraction are also excluded from the net domestic consumption. This implies that the net domestic consumption of electricity in the energy balance becomes lower than in the annual electricity statistics.

Regarding electricity consumption by sector and industry, the annual electricity statistics is the main source in the energy balance. An exception is manufacturing industries, where figures from a separate survey on energy consumption in manufacturing industries are the source. Usually, this survey shows a higher consumption for manufacturing industries than the electricity statistics does. To calibrate total electricity consumption in the energy balance and the electricity statistics, we have to reduce the consumption in other sectors, usually the service sectors. For households, the sum of consumption in households and cottages/holiday houses from the annual electricity statistics is used directly as consumption in households in the energy balance.

Consistency between the energy balance and energy accounts

The statistics for energy balance and energy accounts are set up from almost the same data, but accordingto different principles and definitions. The energy balance shows total production, transformation and consumption of all energy products within Norwegian territory. The energy accounts includes energy products produced and used in industries in the Norwegian economy and Norwegian households. This is independent of where in the world it happens. Norwegian consumption abroad is included, while foreign consumption in Norway is excluded. This is called Norwegian economic territory and is the same delimitation that is used in the national accounts.

In the energy balance, all use of energy products for transport purposes is reported separately. The energy account includes consumption of all energy in the industry that has used it, regardless of whether consumption is for transportation, heating or processing purposes.

Energy use in aviation deviates in energy balance and energy accounts because the energy accounts includes Norwegian companies' purchases abroad, but not foreign companies' purchases in Norway, while the opposite is the case in the energy balance. The consumption of jet fuel in the army is not included in aviation in either energy account or balance but is placed under services /public administration.

Deliveries of energy products from Norwegian ports to ships in foreign maritime transport, irrespective of the nationality of the ship, are called bunkers in the energy balance and are excluded from total domestic consumption of energy. It is also placed on the supply side in the energy balance and is treated approximately as the export of energy. The same applies to energy used for aircraft in foreign voyages. In the energy accounts, foreign shipping is its own transport industry, and consumption is therefore included in transport. The energy account shall also include the energy consumption of Norwegian ships abroad.

Legal authority

The Statistics Act §§ 2-1, 2-2 and 2-3. The statistics are mainly based on data from other statistics

EEA reference

Not relevant

Production

Population

The energy balance

The energy balance has territorial delimitation - the statistics cover only activity on Norwegian territory regardless of the user's nationality. The scope of statistics is defined by energy products shown in the energy balance columns, as well as balance sheet items describing the energy flow and appearing in rows in the energy balance.

The energy account

The energy account shows all energy products produced and used by industries in the Norwegian economy and Norwegian households, also abroad. Norwegian consumption abroad is included, while foreign consumption in Norway is excluded. This is called Norwegian economic territory and equals the delimitation of national accounts. 

Data sources and sampling

The sources are available basic statistics, partly from Statistics Norway's own statistics, partly from other institutions. Relatively few figures are collected only for the purpose of being used in the energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet. Internal statistics that are used include statistics on energy use in the manufacturing sector (a separate survey from 1998), electricity statistics, statistics on delivery of petroleum products, refinery statistics, domestic use of natural gas statistics, district heating statistics, external trade statistics and the national accounts statistics. For some sectors, projections of figures from previous energy consumption surveys are used. Data from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate on the production of crude oil and natural gas are among the many external data that are used. The various statistics that are used as data sources do not always provide all the details needed in the energy accounts and balances, and therefore, some figures are based on estimates.

Production

The production figures for coal, petroleum products and refinery gas are taken from internal sources in Statistics Norway, while those for crude oil and natural gas are taken from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The production figure for fuel wood is calculated as the sum of consumption of fuel wood plus exports minus imports. The production figures for blast furnace gas and fuel gas are taken from two major Norwegian companies. The production figures for electricity are taken from Statistics Norway’s annual electricity statistics, while figures for district heating are taken from Statistics Norway's district heating statistics.

Imports, exports, stock changes, intermediate goods and losses
The import and export figures are extracted from Statistics Norway's external trade statistics. The changes in stock are mainly taken from Statistics Norway's statistics on stocks, which include stocks at refineries, crude oil terminals and oil fields. Changes in coal and coke stocks include changes in the stocks of Store Norske Spitsbergen Kulkompani and major consumers. The input of intermediate goods (input in energy producing industries) are based on figures from the monthly refinery statistics, figures from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, annual or monthly (for preliminary figures) electricity statistics, the district heating statistics and refinery statistics and the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. Figures on losses are derived from the annual electricity Statistics and the district heating statistics.

Coal, coke and energy used as raw materials
Coal and coke are mainly used as raw materials in manufacturing industries in Norway. The figures for industrial consumption of coal and coke are taken from a separate survey for the 40-50 largest enterprises in Norway. Figures for other energy sources used as raw materials, as LPG, is also collected in this survey. The sample cover the main users of coal and coke and other energy used as raw materials in Norway. The figures on agricultural and private household consumption of coal and coke are estimates based on information provided by Forenede Kulimportører A/S, Scancem A/S and Store Norske Spitsbergen Kulkompani A/S.

Manufacturing industries
Figures for energy consumption in manufacturing industries, except energy used as raw materials, are from 1998 taken from a separate statistics of energy use in the manufacturing sector. Prior to this, the source was manufacturing statistics, which also included figures for energy consumption.

Fuel wood in households

Statistics on use of wood in households is based on figures on the amount of wood burned from the annual survey on consumer expenditure for the years before 2005. For the years after 2005 the figures are based on responses to questions relating to wood-burning in Statistics Norway’s Travel and Holiday Survey. The survey quarterly gathers data that cover the preceding twelve months. The figure used in the emission calculations is the average of 3 to 5 quarterly surveys. More than 1 000 persons are interviewed by telephone every quarter. The response rate is around 60 per cent.

Theoretical energy content is calculated by multiplying the consumption of wood by the factor for energy content. (See table under Definitions.) Energy generated is calculated by multiplying the theoretical energy content by rates of energy efficiencies for different ovens technologies.

Energy efficiencies for different oven technologies. Per cent

 

Open fireplace

Enclosed stove, old technology

Enclosed stove, new technology

Energy efficiency

15

50

75

Petroleum products
The consumption figures for petroleum products are based on statistics on deliveries of petroleum products. The breakdown by industrial group comes from the statistics on energy use in the manufacturing sector. The Norwegian Environment Agency is the source for consumption of landfill gas, while the consumption of waste oil, paint and varnish etc is based on figures from NORSAS until 1999. From 2000, these data are included in the statistics on energy use in the manufacturing sector. For other industries, data are collected by the division for Energy and Environmental Statistics.

Electricity
The distribution of electricity consumption between the main groups is taken from annual electricity Statistics. The statistics are based on data submitted by all companies that produce and distribute electricity. Since this sector usually categorizes its own statistics on the basis of various types of tariffs, it is often difficult to accommodate data to the categorization used in the energy sources balance sheet. Industrial energy consumption figures are taken from the statistics on energy use in the manufacturing sector.

District heating
The distribution of district heating consumption between consumer groups is taken from the district heating statistics. To achieve a more detailed distribution, statistics from the Directorate of Public Construction and Property have been used.

Natural gas
The consumption of natural gas by industry outside the manufacturing industries is reported by the distributors of natural gas in Norway.

Statistical errors
Statistical errors represent deviations between the consumption and supply of energy bearers. In principle, the supply of energy (production + imports) should correspond to exports and consumption of energy. However, there are many reasons for deviations; erroneous registration, conversion from other units of measurement, the use of different statistical sources, etc. Statistical errors for crude oil and natural gas are sometimes very high. This could be due to inaccuracy in the figures for production or exports, or these figures might not be consistent. Even if the statistical errors are relatively low compared to total production, they can be high compared to the total domestic energy consumption.

Other sectors
Energy consumption in fish farms, distribution of water, IT activities and ocean transport are calculated on the basis of figures from the national accounts and prices from the electricity statistics, the Norwegian Petroleum Industry Association (NP) and Shell.

The energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet cover the total supply and consumption of energy in Norway. The statistics that are used as sources are to a large extent statistics that cover the total population. The statistics on energy use in the manufacturing sector do not cover all enterprises, but the sample covers more than 90 per cent of the total energy consumption in the manufacturing industries. For other units, the energy consumption is estimated.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Available data are used as much as possible, partly with small adjustments for calibrating the total accounts. For oil products, the energy accounts and energy sources balance sheet define the domestic consumption as identical to registered sales exclusive of consumption by international shipping and aviation. For sectors where reliable information is not available, the consumption is partly calculated as a residual, partly on previous surveys or data that may indicate the consumption (such as employment, the number of private cars etc). The statistics used as source are mainly annual, except the statistics on deliveries of petroleum products, the refinery statistics and the preliminary electricity statistics, which are monthly. From 2006, data on deliveries of biofuels are collected by survey.

All the necessary data are not available at the time when the preliminary energy accounts and energy balance sheet are produced. As a result, some temporary calculations and estimates have to be used. These are revised when the final energy sources balance sheet is produced.

When the energy accounts and energy sources balance sheet are published, data for total supplied energy consumption are presented. In addition, the data from the energy balance sheet are presented as utilised energy. The figures for utilised energy take into account that it is not possible to fully utilise the theoretical energy content of any energy bearer (except electricity), due to heating equipment, car engines etc not being completely efficient. Utilised energy is calculated on the basis of the thermal efficiency coefficients of the different energy sources and consumer groups.

Both the energy accounts and the energy balance sheet are presented in two types of units: in physical units (tonnes, GWh etc) and in a common energy unit, petajoule (PJ) and GWh respectively. The figures in PJ and GWh are calculated on the basis of the figures measured in physical units, and with factors for the theoretical energy contents in the different energy products. When presented in PJ or GWh, the energy sources balance sheet is referred to as energy balance sheet.

Calculations used in the production of the statistics:

Conversion into common units - original values ​​for quantity data are converted to the standard physical unit for each energy product and into the common energy unit.

 Imputation - a statistical method of replacing missing data using existing data. This includes figures for stock change, consumption to conversion (eg electricity, blast furnace gas), import / export / production (eg wood, waste, hazardous waste), consumption of fuel abroad / fuel purchased abroad.

Allocation of aggregated amounts – data with insufficient level of detail is divided using a set of allocation keys (shares). Allocation keys are used for splitting aggregated energy products (eg waste, gas oils / diesel), industries, user groups and origin (renewable or non-renewable).

Purchases abroad and import - for some energy products there is information about total purchases (in Norway + abroad) and purchases in Norway. In these cases, the purchase abroad is calculated as the difference between the two quantities. This calculation is made for the foreign shipping industry. At the same time as imputing of purchases abroad, an import amount equal to the amount purchased abroad is imputed.

Production

Primary petroleum products and coal

Annual figures for the production of LPG, ethane, NGL, crude oil and natural gas are collected from the Diskos database to the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (OD). Diskos is a collaboration between OD and oil companies on the Norwegian shelf, where the oil companies themselves report seismic data, well data and production data. Annual figures for produced amounts of coal are collected in Norwegian coal mines in Svalbard. Russian coal mines are not included in the production figures.

Secondary petroleum products

Secondary petroleum products are mainly produced in oil refineries. Annual production amounts are collected directly from the oil companies and the production data includes energy products such as gasoline, gas oils / diesel, kerosene, distillates, heavy oil, LPG, naphtha and petrol coke. Production of gas oils / diesel is collected on the more aggregated level than the requirement for reporting of the statistics. Sales figures from the annual petroleum statistics are used to split production, stock and import / export between light heating oil, off-road diesel, auto diesel and marine gas oil. In addition to energy products mentioned above, the refineries also produce CO gas from petrol coke and refinery gas. We collect these production figures annually directly from the companies.

Electricity

Production figures are obtained from monthly and annual electricity statistics. The data is based on reporting. Annual electricity statistics are published about 10 months after the end of the year. Figures from the monthly electricity statistics are therefore used for the prelimininary publication in May. Figures from the annual electricity statistics are used for the publication two years after the end of the year. The differences between annual and monthly electricity statistics are that the annual statistics is more detailed and reliable than the monthly statistics. However, for the production figures, the differences are small.

District heating and cooling

Production figures are obtained from annual district heating statistics. The figures are collected via an annual form-based survey and the population includes all district heating and cooling systems in Norway, which supply heat and/or cooling via a pipeline to external customers from heating plants with capacity of at least 1 MW. Industrial companies that produce heat only for their own use are not included.

Biogas

The data on production of biogas is collected directly from producers through an annual form-based survey. Statistics Norway also receives files with extraction of landfill gas from landfills from the Norwegian Environmental Directorate. This information complements the production data collected in our own data collection.

Other energy products

For certain energy products in the Norwegian economy, the quantities produced are calculated. This applies to the energy products waste, wood, pellets and briquettes.

Import and export

Import and export of energy products are obtained from the external trade statistics of Statistics Norway, with some exceptions. Foreign trade statistics are based on customs declarations covering physical goods flows that pass the customs border.

Consumption

Consumption figures for industry and mining industries

are obtained from energy consumption statistics in the industry. The statistics are collected via an annual form-based sample survey, where companies report energy products used for production, light, heat and transport for one or more of their businesses. To cover all energy use in industry and mining, information about energy products used as raw materials is also collected and a special form is sent to a small selection of companies that manufacture or use special energy products. Examples here are businesses in chemical industry companies that use natural gas as raw materials or businesses in the mineral industry as energy generators different types of waste.

The consumption of electricity in the consumer groups outside industry is collected from the electricity statistics.

Consumption of district heating in the consumer groups outside industry is obtained from district heating statistics. This is data reported from district heating plants.

Consumption figures for offshore activity in the crude oil and natural gas extraction industry, as well as services associated with, are obtained from the national database for mandatory reporting on petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Energy consumption and emissions are reported here, and data quality is quality-controlled by the Oil Directorate and the Environment Directorate. The data source contains consumption of diesel oils, crude oil and natural gas.

Consumption in land facilities is obtained from data from Oil Directorate, Gassco, reporting to the Norwegian Environmental Directorate, and Statistics Norway survey on domestic use or natural gas. Several of the land heating plants also produce electric power (gas power). Power plants that produce both power and heat are called CHP, Combined Heat and Power Plants. For these, the shares of natural gas used in power and heat production are calculated on the basis of figures for power generation, total use of natural gas and expected efficiency.

Consumption of natural gas and biogas for road transport is collected through annual survey of companies selling natural gas and biogas for use in Norway. Consumption of petroleum products not mentioned above is covered by the annual sales statistics for petroleum products. In EB, it is assumed that auto diesel, petrol and LPG are used for road transport and that petrol diesel, light fuel oil and heating parafin are used for stationary use in the industry. Consumption of lubricants and bitumen is considered as non-energy consumption.

Consumption of natural gas in shipping is collected through an annual form-based survey for natural gas dealers. Consumption of marine gas oils, heavy distillate and heavy oil in foreign shipping is calculated using fuel costs from Statistics Norway's statistics. For domestic shipping, all consumption figures for petroleum products are collected from sales statistics.

Consumption of kerosene type jet fuel and aviation gasoline in air transport is calculated using three data sources that are updated annually: 1) Statistics on the sale of petroleum products, 2) Air traffic data sets, which are included in air traffic statistics and 3) reported data on the purchase and use of jet kerosene from a Selection of airlines.

Consumption of electricity and district heating in households is collected from Statistics Norway's annual data collections from distributors of these energy products. Statistics Norway also collects data on consumption of natural gas and biogas through its own annual form-based data collections to retailers. Consumption of light fuel oil and household fuel households is calculated using consumption figures collected as part of the consumption survey (FBU) for Statistics Norway.

Stock

Stock inventory figures for primary oil and gas products in oil- and gas extraction sector are retrieved from the Oil Directorate through an annual data delivery agreement. Storage at the oil refineries and terminals is retrieved directly from the companies through an annual data collection. This is mainly secondary petroleum products. Statistics Norway also collects stock figures for coal, coke and petrol coke.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

The general rule for publication is that data cannot be released unless they contain information from at least three or more participants (i.e. industrial enterprises etc). This rule can be waived if permission from the parties involved is granted.

Comparability over time and space

Comparability over time is requires in energy balance and energy account statistics. This is partly due to the requirements in greenhouse gas emission statistics for annual audits, and international requirements for correlation between energy balance and emissions statistics. If Statistics Norway receives new information for previous years (eg new data sources, methods, conversion factors), this will be taken into the production system and published as revised time series. This means that the numbers are not final in the publication even though they are labeled as final on the statistics web pages. The latest version of the figures for a period will always be in the statbank.

The energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet have been produced since 1976. The sector classification was changed in 1993, and a rough adaptation to this new nomenclature was made for 1990-92. The sector codes for some enterprises were changed in 1993. Changes in the calculation methods over the years mean that the time series for consumption are not fully comparable for some sectors.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

Statistical error is an indicator of uncertainty in the statistics. For the energy balance (EB) and energy account (EA) statistics there is a continuous goal to reduce this type of error.

There are various objectives in EB regarding statistical deviations for the different energy products.

Electricity and district heating should not have statistical differences in final energy balance figures. Production and use are obtained from primary statistics with their own publications. Here the numbers are checked and balanced before they are loaded into EB.

Production and export of crude oil, NGL and natural gas are checked against each other before the figures are loaded into EA/EB and should be balanced as much as possible on the input data.

Energy products that get imputed production or use in the system due to missing data should not have statistical differences. This applies to:

• Waste: The production is equal to the sum of the consumption.

• Liquid biofuel: Missing production numbers are set equal to import. Exceptions are biodiesel. Import / export from foreign trade statistics is collected here.

• Fixed biofuel: Production is equal to the sum of the consumption. Exceptions are charcoal, pellets and wood. For these energy products, import / export is collected from foreign trade statistics.

• Biogas: Lack of production figures is calculated by summing up the consumption corrected for known production.

For light heating oil, auto diesel, off-road diesel and marine gas oils, the statistical difference must be assessed collectively. This is due to the fact that inputs for production, import, export and stock are collected together and split between energy products in the production system using distribution keys.

For the remaining energy products, a certain statistical difference is accepted.

Revision

The EA/EB require comparability over time. This is partly due to the emission statistics’ requirement for annual audits, and the international requirement for cohesion between EA/EB and the emission statistics. Where new information is received for previous years (e.g. new data sources, methods, conversion factors), this is entered in the production system and revised time series are published.

The most recent version of the figures for a period will always be available in Statbank