407548
/en/utenriksokonomi/statistikker/uhtjenester/kvartal
407548
statistikk
2021-03-03T08:00:00.000Z
External economy
en
uhtjenester, External trade in services, import, export, non-financial enterprises, service types (for example sea transport, petroleum services, research and development), trade, industry groups (for example transport, business services, mining and quarrying)External trade , External economy
true

External trade in services

Updated

Next update

Key figures

-5.5

NOK billion in trade balance

External trade in services for non-financial enterprises
NOK billionChange in per cent
4th quarter 20203rd quarter 2020 - 4th quarter 20204th quarter 2019 - 4th quarter 2020
Exports64.811.3-10.0
Imports70.311.7-9.2
 
NOK billion
4th quarter 20203rd quarter 20204th quarter 2019
Trade balance-5.5-4.7-5.4

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
External trade in services for non-financial enterprises, by service type

External trade in services for non-financial enterprises, by service type
4th quarter 20204th quarter 2020Change in per centChange in per cent
NOK millionShare3rd quarter 2020 - 4th quarter 20204th quarter 2019 - 4th quarter 2020
Exports
All service types64 832100.011.3-10.0
Contract work and repairs4 9997.713.1-23.9
Services related to oil and gas exploration excluding surveying4 6747.2-4.4-6.9
Building and construction projects6891.118.2-50.1
Wholesale trade5810.941.4-13.3
Sea and coastal water transport20 93232.30.3-16.9
Transport by air and inland transport2 0253.16.9-43.0
Supporting and auxiliary transport activities, travel agency activities3 6225.611.63.5
Post and telecommunication2 4293.7-5.20.1
Renting of transportation, machinery and equipment1 2361.942.6-3.1
IT services6 1269.436.110.3
Research and development (R&D)1 1621.832.31.8
Business services12 57819.430.41.5
Leisure activities, cultural services and sports3520.516.2-32.4
Other services3 4275.37.422.1
 
Imports
All service types70 309100.011.7-9.2
Contract work and repairs5 8508.33.33.4
Services related to oil and gas exploration excluding surveying7 55810.714.6-0.3
Building and construction projects1 3161.916.5-1.6
Wholesale trade5320.813.0-17.3
Sea and coastal water transport7 44410.6-5.1-25.1
Transport by air and inland transport4 0295.710.15.6
Supporting and auxiliary transport activities, travel agency activities6 3049.08.2-32.2
Post and telecommunication1 5432.2-4.0-4.8
Renting of transportation, machinery and equipment4 0765.87.6-35.7
IT services10 49214.912.68.2
Research and development (R&D)1 1131.637.62.2
Business services14 48520.623.5-5.9
Leisure activities, cultural services and sports1 2541.847.5-12.5
Other services4 3146.117.520.8

Table 2 
External trade in services for non-financial enterprises, by major industry activity

External trade in services for non-financial enterprises, by major industry activity
4th quarter 2020Change in per cent
NOK millionShare3rd quarter 2020 - 4th quarter 20204th quarter 2019 - 4th quarter 2020
Exports
All industries64 832100.011.3-10.0
Mining and quarrying3 5755.5-4.7-10.2
Manufacturing7 45611.521.8-16.5
Construction6020.996.127.0
Wholesale and retail trade2 3373.618.938.9
Transportation and storage27 60342.62.7-16.5
Information and communication10 26615.816.57.4
Professional, scientific and technical activities10 33215.928.11.4
Administrative and support service activities1 6572.625.9-22.9
Other industries1 0041.5-4.7-50.0
 
Imports
All industries70 309100.011.7-9.2
Mining and quarrying13 61119.46.2-12.4
Manufacturing8 22911.716.912.4
Construction1 4572.131.96.4
Wholesale and retail trade5 6278.021.124.7
Transportation and storage17 71025.28.9-20.5
Information and communication12 57817.97.50.5
Professional, scientific and technical activities7 60610.819.8-2.5
Administrative and support service activities1 7062.412.2-57.7
Other industries1 7842.517.8-13.8

Table 3 
External trade in services for non-financial enterprises, by service type. Last 5 quarters. NOK million

External trade in services for non-financial enterprises, by service type. Last 5 quarters. NOK million
4th quarter 20191st quarter 20202nd quarter 20203rd quarter 20204th quarter 2020
Balance-5 413.0-5 076.0-7 945.0-4 701.0-5 477.0
 
Exports
All service types72 01166 06259 56658 26364 832
Contract work and repairs6 5694 6174 9594 4204 999
Services related to oil and gas exploration excluding surveying5 0214 8625 1684 8884 674
Building and construction projects1 3817951 181583689
Wholesale trade670592421411581
Sea and coastal water transport25 20023 75421 30720 87420 932
Transport by air and inland transport3 5543 4131 7701 8942 025
Supporting and auxiliary transport activities, travel agency activities3 4983 6613 1643 2453 622
Post and telecommunication2 4272 4142 3572 5632 429
Renting of transportation, machinery and equipment1 2757959078671 236
IT services5 5525 5554 5004 5016 126
Research and development (R&D)1 1421 1877978781 162
Business services12 39511 38310 3759 64412 578
Leisure activities, cultural services and sports521407266303352
Other services2 8062 6282 3953 1913 427
 
Imports
All service types77 42471 13867 51162 96470 309
Contract work and repairs5 6584 8505 2525 6645 850
Services related to oil and gas exploration excluding surveying7 5846 3997 1766 5947 558
Building and construction projects1 3381 0509181 1301 316
Wholesale trade643495445471532
Sea and coastal water transport9 9459 6898 3687 8467 444
Transport by air and inland transport3 8144 1273 9883 6584 029
Supporting and auxiliary transport activities, travel agency activities9 2938 8386 0755 8246 304
Post and telecommunication1 6211 8651 6011 6081 543
Renting of transportation, machinery and equipment6 3414 2404 2823 7894 076
IT services9 69610 07511 1559 32010 492
Research and development (R&D)1 0897318968091 113
Business services15 39814 26412 64111 73114 485
Leisure activities, cultural services and sports1 4338817648501 254
Other services3 5703 6333 9503 6704 314

Table 4 
External trade in services for non-financial enterprises, major industry activity. Last 5 quarters. NOK million

External trade in services for non-financial enterprises, major industry activity. Last 5 quarters. NOK million
4th quarter 20191st quarter 20202nd quarter 20203rd quarter 20204th quarter 2020
Balance-5 413.0-5 076.0-7 945.0-4 701.0-5 477.0
 
Exports
All industries72 01166 06259 56658 26364 832
Mining and quarrying3 9803 8493 7553 7513 575
Manufacturing8 9326 4846 5646 1237 456
Construction474399367307602
Wholesale and retail trade1 6831 8951 6141 9662 337
Transportation and storage33 04031 25627 70026 87227 603
Information and communication9 5599 3978 5828 81010 266
Professional, scientific and technical activities10 1879 3898 1698 06510 332
Administrative and support service activities2 1502 2051 6581 3161 657
Other industries2 0061 1871 1561 0541 004
 
Imports
All industries77 42471 13867 51162 96470 309
Mining and quarrying15 53114 68814 74012 82113 611
Manufacturing7 3187 6226 1317 0428 229
Construction1 3701 0301 0151 1051 457
Wholesale and retail trade4 5134 9204 8164 6465 627
Transportation and storage22 27018 80117 16716 26017 710
Information and communication12 51512 33113 24711 70412 578
Professional, scientific and technical activities7 8046 7556 9446 3517 606
Administrative and support service activities4 0353 3691 8451 5211 706
Other industries2 0691 6221 6061 5151 784

Table 5 
Revisions from previous publication (per cent) by import/export, industry and time. Per cent

Revisions from previous publication (per cent) by import/export, industry and time. Per cent
3rd quarter 20194th quarter 20191st quarter 20202nd quarter 20203rd quarter 2020
Imports
All industries0.70.73.35.53.4
Mining and quarrying-0.3-0.20.60.50.3
Manufacturing7.16.76.512.614.6
Construction1.81.221.919.512.6
Wholesale and retail trade0.00.0-0.7-0.5-1.0
Transportation and storage0.00.0-2.0-1.5-1.3
Information and communication0.00.118.327.210.6
Professional, scientific and technical activities1.00.5-0.3-2.3-0.8
Administrative and support service activities0.20.31.710.010.2
Other industries0.00.00.82.03.4
 
Exports
All industries0.00.00.6-0.30.9
Mining and quarrying0.00.0-0.3-0.3-1.3
Manufacturing0.00.00.10.84.1
Construction0.00.01.83.43.7
Wholesale and retail trade0.00.04.24.54.2
Transportation and storage0.00.0-0.1-0.20.2
Information and communication-0.10.03.5-2.60.0
Professional, scientific and technical activities-0.10.0-0.4-1.41.7
Administrative and support service activities0.00.03.44.65.9
Other industries0.00.0-0.80.20.5

About the statistics

The statistics External trade in services show Norwegian non-financial corporations revenues on exports of services, and expenses for imports of services. The figures are collected as a quarterly sample survey.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Imports:
Imports of services comprise all services delivered to the reporting enterprise by companies, affiliates, legal persons or other units regarded as foreigners, and for which payments are made to the counterparts. The services can be delivered either in Norway or abroad.

Exports:
Exports of services comprise all services delivered from the reporting enterprise to companies, affiliates, legal persons or other units regarded as foreigners, and for which payments are made by the counterparts. The services can be delivered either in Norway or abroad.

Trade in services with foreign affiliates within the same reporting group shall be included in the quarterly report in the same manner as other trade in services with foreign companies, specified with type of service (CPA-code). Such trade in services must also be specified in individual items, and reported correspondingly as “herav eksport av konserninterne tjenester (of which internal export of services within the same group)´´ for export and “herav import av konserninterne tjenester (of which internal import of services within the same group)´´ for import of services.

In this context, “group´´ means units with a certain relationship, such as parent company, subsidiaries, (sister companies and others) and branches, etc.

  • A holding company or parent company is a company that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and operations by influencing or electing its board of directors.
  • A subsidiary is a company that is owned and directly controlled by the parent company.
  • A sub-subsidiary is a company that is owned and directly controlled by the subsidiary, but is not directly controlled by the parent company.

“Control´´ means possession of more than 50 per cent of the ownership of another company.

Country:
Import: the country the foreign trade partner (supplier) is registered in.
Export: the country the foreign trade partner (customer) is registered in.

Amounts in NOK 1000:
All amounts reported should be in NOK 1000.

Standard classifications

NACE:
Until the published statistics for the year 2009, the Standard Industrial Classification of Economic Activities 2002 (SN 2002) was being used, which is a Norwegian adaption of NACE REV. 1. (EUROSTAT). From the year 2010 Standard Industrial Classification of Economic Activities 2007 (SN 2007) was being used. SN 2007 correlates with the EU standard NACE REV. 2, and forms the basis for coding units according to principal activity in the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises. The use of common standards is essential in enabling the comparison and analysis of statistical data at national/ international level and over time.

CPA:
The EU product standard “Classification of Products by Activity´´ (CPA). 

Country:
Alfa-2-code of ISO 3166.

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: External trade in services
Topic: External economy

Next release

Responsible division

Division for External Trade Statistics

Regional level

The statistics indicates non-financial enterprises' share of external trade in services.

Frequency and timeliness

The statistics are collected quarterly from non-financial enterprises reporting export and import of services with other countries. From 2006 until 2010 the statistics were published annually, and from the 1st quarter 2011 the statistics is being published on quarterly basis.

International reporting

The statistics is a part of the balance of payments and the national accounts, and data is used as a part of the reporting to international institutions such as IMF, OECD and the statistical office of the EU, Eurostat.

Microdata

The basic material, and the revised data, is stored in Statistics Norway.

Background

Background and purpose

The statistics on external trade in services was established in 2005 as the Central Bank of Norway discontinued the foreign payment statistics.

The purpose of the statistics is to give information about service flows between Norway and other countries. Income and expenditure in connection with exports and imports of services to and from other countries are important economic indicators, both in describing structural changes and in monitoring the economic trends.

Users and applications

The statistics are needed for prognoses and analyses performed by public authorities, research institutions and private organisations. International organisations like the UN statistical office, the statistical office of the EU (Eurostat) and others make use of the information that the external trade statistics gives. The external trade statistics are a part of the national and international statistical systems, and are also used in the compilation of the national accounts and the balance of payment statistics.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08.am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given inthe Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

International trade in services for non-financial enterprises is an important source for export and import of services in the national accounts and the balance of payment.

Exports and imports of services in the national accounts (and the balance of payment) include more than the trade in services by non-financial enterprises. Both the balance of payments and the national accounts include trade in services that all domestic sectors have with other countries. In addition to non-financial enterprises this is financial enterprises, non-profit organizations, households and public administration. In addition to this difference in extent, there also are some differences in definitions. The most important are that the national accounts (and the balance of payment):

  • Includes the freightage in connection with the value of imported goods (CIF-value), and not the import of services
  • Includes the value of Norwegian shipping enterprise's freightage in connection with export of goods from Norway, independent of who are paying for the commission, while external trade in services for non-financial enterprises only includes such freight if the foreign part is paying
  • Estimates import and export of insurance services as a share of premium payment.
  • Estimates import and export of indirect measured banking services.
  • Redefines some goods where the value is dominated by the service content.
  • Includes conventional estimated export and import according to Norway’s ownership in the Nordic airline company, SAS.

Another difference is that when it comes to freight income in shipping and distribution by country, external trade in services for non-financial enterprises follow the payments, while in balance of payment, statistics on arrivals of vessels are being used

All the conditions mentioned above give non-comparable numbers between the statistics of international trade in services for non-financial enterprises, and the numbers for exports and imports of services given in the national accounts and the balance of payments.

Legal authority

The Statistics Act, §§ 2-1 and 2-2 and 2-3 (compulsory fine).

EEA reference

EU-regulations 184/2005 incorporated in the EEA-agreement ruling the scope of the statistics, defining the variables and prescribing the format of the transmissions of data to the EU statistical office, Eurostat.

Production

Population

The statistics includes external trade in services and are accomplished as quarterly reporting and until 2008 also annually, from non-financial Norwegian enterprises.

The reporting unit is the legal persons who produce goods and services for sale. The population in this survey is built on information from the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises. The population is kept up to date by the use of different administrative register, such as the Register of Cross border Transactions and Currency Exchange, information through contact with the largest reporting enterprises and information through media.

 

Data sources and sampling

The statistics are based on information from non-financial enterprises. The respondents shall report data every quarter.

Population

The population concerning external trade in services for non-financial enterprises includes all enterprises. The population excludes small enterprises which have no or just a small amount of external trade in services. To join this very limited population, the rest of the enterprises must fulfill at least one of the following five criteria:

  • Total ingoing and outgoing cash flow transactions exceeding NOK 500 000, or outgoing transactions concerning import of services exceeding NOK 50 000 based on cash flow statistics
  • FATS (Foreign-controlled enterprises in Norway/ Norwegian controlled enterprises abroad)
  • The enterprise has been in the sample for at least four years, and has reported figures on external trade in services
  • Enterprises within the quarrying and mining industry, which has joined VAT number with an enterprise which fulfill the first criteria
  • The enterprise is within the external ocean transport industry, and has a turnover of at least NOK 5 000 000

When excluding all enterprises not fulfilling at least one of these five criteria, about 33 000 enterprises remain.

The population includes following sectors in institutional sectoral grouping:


• 1110 - Public unincorporated enterprises, owned by central government
• 1120 - Public unincorporated enterprises, owned by central government
• 1510 - Public unincorporated enterprises, owned by local government
• 1520 - Public unincorporated enterprises, owned by local government
• 2100 - Private non-financial incorporated enterprises
• 2300 - Private non-financial unincorporated enterprises
• 2500 - Private non-profit institutions serving enterprises
• 8200 -.Unincorporated enterprises within households
• 4900 - Other financial enterprises outside of insurance - only individual groups

The stratification is based on the desire to divide the population into homogeneous groups. The stratification  should ideally   reflect homogeneity inside of the group, and a difference in the service trade between the groups. The different strata are defined by industry, how important industries are for trade in services, figures from the foreign exchange register and division according to "FATS / non-FATS" enterprises.

From the population there is drawn a sample of enterprises stratified simply by chance. To allocate the sample between the strata, optimal allocation has been used.

The sample is distributed among enterprises with high significance of having external trade in services, and enterprises who are drawn randomly. . The companies with high significance belong to a group that we are quite sure they have trade in services abroad.

The share of the randomly drawn enterprises was reduced by 20 per cent in 2016 to meet the demand for reduced reporting burden for medium and small enterprises. This means that the total sample now is about 2,700, of which 700 with high significance.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

The data  is sent to Statistic Norway electronically, either by filling the WEB questionnaire directly, or by reporting the data via file, via Altinn (Norwegian public reporting portals for Internet site for transmitting data). The reporting deadline for each quarterly reporting is the 25th day of the month following the end of the reporting period.

The data are checked when reported to Statistics Norway, and for some types of errors, the respondent is contacted to get the errors corrected. The data are also verified by comparing them with data from previous reports, accounting data, annual reports and other sources.

The trade in services is estimated by using a stratified expansion estimate. This estimator is calculated as follows:
1. Within each stratum, the average export / import  figures are calculated (ie based on the sample)
2. Because the sample is drawn stratified simply by chance, these averages could be good estimates of the actual averages in the  stratum. Any extreme observations are kept outside the calculation of the average
3. Within each stratum we multiply the calculated averages with the number of enterprises in the stratum (in the limited population). This will be an estimate of total exports / imports in the stratum.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant.

Confidentiality

Statistics Norway's principles for confidentiality are used. The Statistics will not be published if it is possible to identify one of the reporting enterprises. Because of this, there must not be less than three respondents. Furthermore one respondent should not cover more than 90 per cent, and the two largest respondents should not have more than 95 per cent of the trade in any figure made public.

Comparability over time and space

Due to the UK´s withdrawal from the EU was formally completed on the 1 February 2020, there was a change in the statistics "foreign trade in services". When the survey does not measure trade every month, but for the quarter as a whole, the United Kingdom in the statistics is moving from the region "EU countries outside the Nordic countries" to the region "Rest of Europe" as of Q1 2020.

As from the 1. Quarter 2019, there was introduced a new type of service "IT-related license fees" which will affect the existing type of service "Royalties and license fees". This means that the export/import "IT services" and export/import "Other services" cannot be directly compared to previous publications.

In conjunction with the first quarter of 2017, a change has been made in the compilation of service types. The service grouping railway and land transport services was merged with air transport services to a new group of air and land transport services. This applies to Tables 2 and 4, which show foreign trade services for non-financial corporations, by service type. In Statbank table 10192, the changes date back to Q1 2015. This means that the figures are not directly comparable with previous publications.


The statistics have also undergone a change of methodology, and figures for the foreign shipping industry were taken from the publication for 2010 and up to and including the publication for 1Q 2013. Figures for 2Q 2013 are therefore not comparable with early publications. This method conversion implies a change in the use of sources. See the national accounts' web pages on the Balance of payment http://www.ssb.no/utenriksokonomi/statistikker/ur.

See also under Coherence With other statistics above.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The figures the companies shall report to SSB only concern external trade in services. It might be some difficulties in differing between goods and services, and between a Norwegian unit and a foreign unit. This might lead to weakness for the statistic, because the reported numbers might be wrong. Many of the reporting enterprises are involved in heavy projects, which may influence the figures, especially when the projects starts and are being closed.

A weakness of the statistic is that some respondent do not answer the survey. To reduce this problem with missing numbers, both partial- and total, numbers are being imputed.

The sampling error is the difference between the samples reported numbers and the numbers that would be if the whole population was investigated. To reduce this problem we try to make sure that the biggest companies are included in the sample.

Revision

External trade in services publishes preliminary figures quarterly. However, further revisions of the figures continue for five more quarters when the final figures are published. Corrections in data mean that the quarterly figures can be changed until publication of the final figures. The difference between the preliminary figures and the final figures is usually small at aggregated level. At the detailed level, and for individual quarters, revisions can have greater significance, in relative terms. Table 5 in each release of the statistics show the revisions form previous publications.

 

                                   Revision plan External trade in services

 

This year  
  (T)

Last year 
  (T-1)

The year before last 
  (T-2)

Publications

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1 (June year T)

 

 

 

 

R4

R3

R2

R1

 

 

 

FR5

Q2 (Sept year T)

R1

 

 

 

FR5

R4

R3

R2

 

 

 

 

Q3 (Dec year T)

R2

R1

 

 

 

FR5

R4

R3

 

 

 

 

Q4 (Mar year  T+1)

R3

R2

R1

 

 

 

FR5

R4

 

 

 

 

R1 - FR5 = Revision number (R1 = first revision, FR5 = Final figures, Revison no. 5)