External economy;Establishments, enterprises and accounts
ufats, Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, industry breakdown (e.g. manufacturing, building and construction, transport...), turnover, employment, breakdown by country.Establishments and enterprises , Foreign assets and liabilities , Establishments, enterprises and accounts, External economy

Norwegian subsidiaries abroad


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Key figures

1 429

NOK billion turnover

Norwegian subsidiaries abroad
EnterprisesTurnover (NOK million)1Employed persons
1Turnover: Taxes, duties or levies linked directly to revenue are as of 2018 excluded from turnover.
All countries4 4931 429 378290 038
Europe3 251763 196181 526
Africa10548 7324 129
Asia546187 76944 436
North and Central America404316 30932 980
South America116102 09424 251
Oceania7111 2782 716

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, by industrial sector (SN2007)

Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, by industrial sector (SN2007)
EnterprisesTurnover (NOK million)1Employed personsEnterprisesTurnover (NOK million)1Employed persons
1Turnover: Taxes, duties or levies linked directly to revenue are as of 2018 excluded from turnover.
All industries4 3411 377 870288 9344 4931 429 378290 038
Agriculture, forestry and fishing343 7971 818346 1312 312
Mining and quarrying123285 3519 758115265 26110 843
Manufacturing939534 218115 625954545 773112 854
Electricity and gas, water supply, sewerage, waste13924 4742 19212323 1992 137
Construction9924 7195 92711828 3506 820
Wholesale and retail trade561144 35227 683566149 84029 241
Transportation and storage39882 83919 27540483 44319 390
Accommodation and food service activities14510 7919 95015110 47311 456
Information and communication398112 22936 173442147 56039 327
Financial and insurance activities29640 59010 14329240 3268 207
Real estate activities35616 4791 77735619 3052 015
Professional, scientific and technical activities56563 97223 11261270 87624 523
Administrative and support service activities21429 37320 19725133 77215 848
Other industries744 6865 304755 0705 065

Table 2 
Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, geographical breakdown

Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, geographical breakdown
EnterprisesTurnover (NOK million)1Employed personsEnterprisesTurnover (NOK million)1Employed persons
1Turnover: Taxes, duties or levies linked directly to revenue are as of 2018 excluded from turnover.
2ASEAN: Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam.
3Offshore financial centres: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Netherlands Antilles (up to 2010 data), Aruba (from 2011 data), Barbados, Bahrain, Bermuda, Bahamas, Belize, Cook Islands, Curaçao (from 2011 data), Dominica, Grenada, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Hong Kong, Isle of Man, Jersey, Jamaica (up to 2010 data), St Kitts and Nevis, Cayman Islands, Lebanon, Saint Lucia, Liechtenstein, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Mauritius (from 2011 data), Montserrat, Maldives (up to 2010 data), Nauru, Niue, Panama, Philippines, Seychelles (from 2011 data), Singapore, Turks and Caicos Islands, Sint Maarten (Dutch part) (from 2011 data), St Vincent and the Grenadines, Virgin Islands (British), Virgin Islands (U.S.), Vanuatu, Samoa.
4Brazil: Detailed data of Brazil are only available from year 2013.
All countries4 3411 377 870288 9344 4931 429 378290 038
Europe3 101751 546180 3853 251763 196181 526
Africa12066 1294 67510548 7324 129
Asia552161 66445 565546187 76944 436
North and Central America377302 71132 169404316 30932 980
South America12285 10123 193116102 09424 251
Oceania6910 7182 9477111 2782 716
Selected aggregates
EU2 929678 440174 5283 088700 633176 223
Europe except EU and Nordic countries15071 4355 27214360 9604 798
Nordic countries1 443::1 499372 02588 730
Offshore financial centers319041 4444 86818238 3474 825
Selected countries
Sweden930190 85253 559956198 41858 344
Denmark323123 27019 049315126 25917 473
Germany19065 70311 71318664 80812 362
United Kingdom25764 78215 94727360 98314 518
United States267274 74620 912296282 47021 293
Brazil47775 78020 7547494 78422 234

About the statistics

The statistics give an overview of Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, which are controlled, either directly or indirectly, with more than 50 per cent, and with Norway as the ultimate investor country. The variables included are number of enterprises, employment and turnover, broken down by industry and country.

The statistics are based on Statistics Norway`s own collection of reports on investment abroad ("Information on investments abroad"). The sample covers the biggest norwegian enterprises with subsidiaries abroad in addition to a sample of smaller enterprises. Only active enterprises are part of the sample. No methods have been established yet to inflate the number of enterprises, turnover and employment abroad to population levels. 


Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Norwegian subsidiaries abroad

A Norwegian subsidiary abroad is defined as an enterprise that is controlled by an enterprise or other economic unit in Norway through an ownership share of more than 50 per cent.


According to Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007), an enterprise is defined as the smallest combination of legal entity that produces goods or services. In the/this statistic, a legal entity is an enterprise. Legal entities are limited liability companies, partnerships and sole enterprises. Only economically active enterprises, with turnover and/or employment, are included in the population.


Employment is defined as the sum of the owners and wage-earners working in the enterprise. Persons with more than one job, may be counted as employed in several industries. Employment numbers show the average number employed during the year.


Turnover is defined as the enterprise's operating revenues minus public subsidies and profit from the sale of fixed assets. Taxes and duties are included, but VAT is not.

Ultimate investor country

The ultimate investor country is the country where the "last" economic agent in the chain of control resides. 

Standard classifications

The industrial classification is in accordance with the Norwegian Standard Industrial Classification (SIC 2007) which is based on the EU industry standard (NACE Rev. 2) and the UN (ISIC Rev. 3).

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Norwegian subsidiaries abroad
Topic: External economy

Responsible division

Division for Financial Accounts

Regional level

National level. Ownership abroad is divided into countries and country groups.

Frequency and timeliness

The statistic is published annually, within 20 months after the reference year.

International reporting

The data will be reported to the EU statistics agency Eurostat and OECD , in line with the binding EEA Agreement and other international agreements.


Raw data and revised microdata are stored according to Statistics Norway's standard for archiving files (Datadok). Microdata are stored for the same periods as the published data on the Statistics Norway's website. Statistics' rules for disclosure of data are applicable for research purposes.


Background and purpose

The purpose is to provide a total overview of the Norwegian subsidiaries’ economic activity abroad, i.e. foreign affiliates abroad. The statistics are internationally known as Foreign Affiliates Statistics. A simplified name is outward FATS.

In Norway, data for outward FATS was collected for the first time in 2008.

Users and applications

Figures for the Norwegian subsidiaries’ activities abroad are used in economic research to measure the degree of globalization, and in international trade negotiations. Users are authorities, businesses, embassies, the media and educational and research institutions, among others. There is also extensive international reporting on data for foreign affiliates abroad, particularly to Eurostat and OECD.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

With regard to ownership abroad, the statistics on Norwegian direct investment abroad (FDI) are related to the outward FATS statistics. The holdings of FDI describe claims of payments in the form of Norwegian-owned capital and other capital tied to direct investment. However, the direct investment statistics say little about how Norwegian ownership interests abroad affect other aspects of the economies where the investment takes place. The FATS statistics are useful in being able to describe this effect, and are a natural continuation of Statistics Norway's existing statistics on globalisation.

Statistics on foreign subsidiaries in Norway (inward FATS) show equivalent relations where foreigners control Norwegian enterprises. The statistics follow the same international requirements as outward FATS.

Legal authority

Statistics Norway's data collection from the reporters is based on the Statistics Act § 10.

EEA reference

European Parliament and Council Regulation (EEC) No 716/2007 of 20 June 2007 concerning Community statistics on the structure and activity of foreign-controlled enterprises (FATS-Regulation). The statistics are prepared in line with recommendations from Eurostat, embodied in the "Recommendations manual on the production of Foreign Affiliates Statistics"(Doc. Eurostat/C4/FATS/LO/SEP06/5 (2006)).



The statistics cover, in principle, all Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, i.e. subsidiaries in foreign countries that are controlled either directly or indirectly by an enterprise in Norway. See section definitions for a closer definition of "Norwegian subsidiaries abroad". Only economically active enterprises are included in the population. The statistics include all Norwegian-controlled institutional sectors. Non-financial corporations are, in this context, the most important sector.

The statistics are based on a cut-off sampling survey. The sampling survey covers the largest Norwegian enterprises with activity abroad. In addition, a sample of smaller enterprises is drawn. The size of the sampling survey has increased since the first year (2008), but all the largest enterprises have been included the whole time.

Data sources and sampling

The statistics are based on Statistics Norway's own collection of reports on investment abroad, which is a joint collection with Norwegian direct investment abroad (outward FDI). The reports provide information about the foreign enterprises, including what the Norwegian enterprise owns, accounting information on investment and revenue, and information on turnover and employment. In addition, information is used from the annual report submitted to the Register of Company Accounts in Brønnøysund, information from the media, Internet etc. to map the changes in investment abroad. The sources are also used to map the ultimate owner country (the country where the enterprise in the ownership chain that is not controlled by another enterprise is located).

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Statistics on the activity of Norwegian subsidiaries abroad are based on Statistics Norway's collection of information on investment abroad. To ensure a high degree of relevance, emphasis is placed on covering large units in the population as measured by reported size. This limits the number of units and minimizes data collection COSTs.

The data collected is to a large extent compared to information with figures for the previous year and the annual accounts submitted to the Register of Company Accounts in Brønnøysund.

With regard to the Norwegian subsidiaries that are included in the survey, ownership is checked by reviewing the data with information from annual accounts and the enterprises' websites etc. on the enterprises' ultimate country of ownership. Only enterprises with Norway as ultimate owner country (Norwegian-controlled enterprises) are included in this statistic.

No methods have been established yet to inflate the number of enterprises, turnover and employment abroad to population level.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant


Figures are not published if fewer than three enterprises are the basis for a cell in the table. Having less than three enterprises creates the risk of identification. This also applies to more than three enterprises if one respondent is so dominating that, in practice, it can be identified.

Comparability over time and space

The size of the sampling survey has increased since the first year (2008), but all the largest enterprises have been included the whole time.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The quality of the statistics is related to the quality of the register of enterprises for data collection. It is also related to the quality of data reported. Respondents can sometimes make errors when completing forms, and Statistics Norway's processing of the data during registration can lead to errors. Errors in this connection can include using the wrong scale, e.g. NOK instead of NOK 1 000, as well as incorrect evaluations.

It is difficult to capture all relevant units at the end of each reporting period.

Statistics on Norwegian subsidiaries abroad are based on Statistics Norway's own data collection. A fine is imposed on non-reporting units in accordance with the Statistics Act. An entity may fail to uphold the reporting requirement, but all the important entities are included in the statistics.

There are currently no calculations to measure the sampling error for the survey. The sampling error is the difference between the sample’s reported numbers and the numbers that would exist if the whole population was surveyed. To reduce this problem, we try to make sure that the largest enterprises are included in the sample.


Not relevant