329179
/en/utenriksokonomi/statistikker/muh/maaned
329179
statistikk
2018-10-15T08:00:00.000Z
External economy
en
muh, External trade in goods, import, export, balance of trade (export minus import), mainland exports, imports excluding ships and oil platforms, trade ( between countries, continents and trade regions), international product groups (for example hs, sitc and bec), product groups (for example food, crude oil and metals)External trade , External economy
true

External trade in goods

Updated

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Key figures

81

billion NOK – Exports of goods in September 2018

External trade in goods1
NOK BillionChange in per centNOK Billion - so far this yearChange in per cent - so far this year
September 2018August 2018 - September 2018September 2017 - September 2018September 2018September 2017 - September 2018
1The figures are marked with the symbol *. This is Statistics Norways standard symbol for indicating preliminary figures. Due to the data collection method, the preliminary monthly figures published for ships and oil platforms are often incomplete. In retrospect, therefore, the trade in these goods could in some cases lead to revisions. Please see tables 1-3 for the impact these figures have on the external trade.
Exports81.0-5.221.8724.315.3
Crude oil25.76.351.5198.720.7
Natural gas19.1-9.538.4180.426.5
Natural gas condensates0.4-61.348.54.725.3
Ships and oil platforms1.0132.325.97.0-25.6
Mainland exports34.8-10.20.5333.78.3
Fish7.5-2.3-3.968.82.9
 
Imports59.96.20.3529.07.9
Ships and oil platforms0.0-100.0-100.02.0-87.5
 
The trade balance21.1-27.3212.3195.341.5
The mainland trade balance-25.1-42.2-25.5-193.3-16.4

See more tables on this subject

Table 1 
Imports of goods, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted main figures. NOK Million

Imports of goods, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted main figures. NOK Million
Total importsCommodities excl. ships and oil platformsShipsOil platforms
UnadjustedUnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjustedUnadjusted
Yearly figures
2013527 722516 826.10 896-
2014562 455549 943.6 1786 334
2015615 485588 519.8 71518 251
2016629 042609 376.19 666-
2017684 585662 504.11 86710 214
 
Monthly figures (last 25 months)
September 201654 29351 19749 3373 096-
October 201652 74651 14848 4591 599-
November 201657 28752 10650 3125 181-
December 201649 31648 47750 159839-
January 201751 86648 54052 6473 326-
February 201748 82947 20651 0731 622-
March 201757 19255 88752 5481 305-
April 201743 98143 95943 63023-
May 201759 79859 09357 058705-
June 201767 15765 62863 6501 529-
July 201746 97846 03548 198943-
August 201754 86853 15155 0011 717-
September 201759 72654 63453 146984 994
October 201756 52456 29453 696230-
November 201784 95179 51676 4402155 220
December 201752 71452 56154 337154-
January 201854 85454 04558 704809-
February 201851 27650 91355 246363-
March 201864 39764 05860 291339-
April 201863 28462 81362 020471-
May 201864 99264 94962 18243-
June 201859 23159 22457 5437-
July 201854 67654 67257 4344-
August 201856 40456 40058 1954-
September 201859 89359 89358 637--

Table 2 
Exports of goods, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted figures. NOK Million

Exports of goods, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted figures. NOK Million
Total exportsCommodities excl. ships and oil platformsMainland exportsShipsOil platforms
UnadjustedUnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjustedUnadjusted
Yearly figures
2013916 532909 538.364 367.6 993-
2014909 036901 683.387 295.7 353-
2015835 267826 330.403 973.5 6113 326
2016751 583739 078.386 536.12 506-
2017860 692849 666.418 543.11 026-
 
Monthly figures (last 25 months)
September 201657 47957 25660 55834 92734 213224-
October 201668 95565 69262 15830 83730 9413 263-
November 201670 55068 88565 68333 16331 3651 665-
December 201672 37169 66866 56832 26432 8152 704-
January 201777 50373 78768 61331 83532 6453 716-
February 201770 34268 25970 74431 72933 1652 082-
March 201777 12275 91172 78838 77234 0451 211-
April 201767 95567 93268 93432 11035 04223-
May 201768 84968 45170 93535 03834 765398-
June 201768 38067 57370 06637 27834 396807-
July 201762 94562 94566 75632 12335 583--
August 201768 80368 45271 43134 51735 505351-
September 201766 48865 68270 03834 67134 955806-
October 201775 29675 17770 96337 44536 106119-
November 201778 85177 76374 28937 93236 5911 087-
December 201778 15777 73374 16035 09336 487424-
January 201883 39980 96075 42537 18337 1032 439-
February 201872 49772 40675 03135 70537 26491-
March 201878 36878 31875 23037 70237 19450-
April 201881 90881 90182 82837 89337 0547-
May 201880 52879 02481 86537 80737 2171 505-
June 201880 86779 92282 55639 76637 596946-
July 201880 30379 80184 95233 98536 189502-
August 201885 45185 01388 36938 77939 732437-
September 201881 01279 99785 99234 83936 7891 015-

Table 3 
The trade balance. NOK Million

The trade balance. NOK Million
Exports-importsExports-imports (both excl. ships and oil platforms)Mainland exports - imports excl. ships and oil platforms
Yearly figures
2013388 809392 712-152 459
2014346 581351 740-162 649
2015219 782237 811-184 546
2016122 541129 701-222 841
2017176 107187 162-243 961
 
Monthly figures (last 25 months)
September 20163 1866 059-16 270
October 201616 20914 544-20 310
November 201613 26316 779-18 943
December 201623 05521 191-16 213
January 201725 63725 246-16 705
February 201721 51321 053-15 477
March 201719 93020 024-17 115
April 201723 97323 973-11 849
May 20179 0519 358-24 055
June 20171 2231 945-28 351
July 201715 96716 910-13 912
August 201713 93615 301-18 634
September 20176 76211 048-19 963
October 201718 77218 883-18 849
November 2017-6 100-1 753-41 584
December 201725 44325 173-17 467
January 201828 54526 915-16 862
February 201821 22121 493-15 208
March 201813 97114 260-26 356
April 201818 62419 088-24 920
May 201815 53614 075-27 142
June 201821 63620 698-19 458
July 201825 62725 129-20 686
August 201829 04728 613-17 621
September 201821 11920 104-25 055

Table 4 
Exports of crude oil, natural gas and natural gas condensates, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted figures. NOK Million

Exports of crude oil, natural gas and natural gas condensates, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted figures. NOK Million
Crude oil, natural gas and natural gas condensates in totalCrude oilNatural gasNatural gas condensates
UnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjusted
Yearly figures
2013545 171.288 126.248 778.8 268
2014514 388.282 663.223 625.8 100
2015422 356.197 116.220 676.4 565
2016352 542.187 595.161 129.3 817
2017431 123.223 073.203 064.4 986
 
Monthly figures (last 25 months)
September 201622 32925 19414 14714 8677 87310 220309
October 201634 85432 14318 20317 38316 22014 766432
November 201635 72233 37918 74318 70516 60814 206371
December 201637 40434 14620 72420 66316 55913 817121
January 201741 95237 32021 95622 13519 56116 482434
February 201736 53037 06518 87620 30517 06415 986590
March 201737 13935 58818 01418 37518 63115 813493
April 201735 82235 61119 33918 47816 05616 445426
May 201733 41435 38518 64818 11114 46616 775300
June 201730 29634 92617 06318 19312 97716 643256
July 201730 82232 70215 05914 73715 26917 072494
August 201733 93535 91018 68717 88614 77617 926472
September 201731 01134 88216 94817 72613 81417 943249
October 201737 73234 59817 56416 88119 88518 080283
November 201739 83137 27618 80318 73520 20717 301822
December 201742 64038 92622 11521 79520 35817 063167
January 201843 77738 95319 34219 30423 79520 027640
February 201836 70137 22017 56818 84818 36617 232767
March 201840 61639 17921 30321 69819 31316 498-
April 201844 00843 60022 25621 37221 06721 415686
May 201841 21743 49122 75122 08417 67720 575788
June 201840 15646 33222 09123 45418 06523 150-
July 201845 81548 68923 52223 25421 84724 369447
August 201846 23548 90924 14823 28521 13125 525955
September 201845 15850 94525 67126 84519 11824 867369

Table 5 
Imports of goods, main groups by SITC

Imports of goods, main groups by SITC
NOK MillionChange in per centNOK MillionChange in per cent
September 2017September 2018September 2017 - September 2018So far this yearSeptember 2017 - September 2018
September 2017September 2018
Total59 72659 8930.3490 396529 0087.9
Of which:
Ships and oil platforms (part of SITC 793)5 092--100.016 2622 040-87.5
Imports excl. Ships and oil platforms54 63459 8939.6474 133526 96811.1
 
0 Food and live animals3 5103 7827.831 56633 4706.0
00 Live animals other than animals of div.031711-32.7179143-20.3
01 Meat and meat preparations112103-7.91 1601 053-9.3
02 Dairy products and birds' eggs9811618.89411 07514.3
03 Fish, crustac.,molluscs and prep. thereof29734616.53 0813 3247.9
04 Cereals and cereal preparations45653918.13 8494 2199.6
05 Vegetables and fruit8048323.59 0549 5014.9
06 Sugars, sugar prepatations and honey157135-13.71 1911 078-9.5
07 Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices387342-11.82 9692 661-10.4
08 Feeding stuff for animals (not cereals)55565818.54 9055 55813.3
09 Miscellaneous edible products62770011.74 2384 85914.6
 
1 Beverages and tobacco7467682.96 7897 2526.8
11 Beverages4544826.24 4534 89910.0
12 Tobacco and tobacco manufactures292285-2.22 3352 3530.7
 
2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels2 8743 19611.228 21334 77223.2
21 Hides, skins and furskins, raw1135.91212-2.5
22 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits14716310.81 5831 560-1.4
23 Crude rubber121524.410812717.8
24 Wood, lumber and cork4204486.83 5933 6361.2
25 Pulp and waste paper4439-11.5399388-2.6
26 Textile fibres and their waste81134.485927.8
27 Crude fertilizers and crude minerales25228914.62 2232 57816.0
28 Metalliferous ores and metal scrap1 7731 96210.717 98623 99633.4
29 Crude animal and vegetable materials21826823.02 2242 3827.1
 
3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials2 2933 45550.723 08034 00847.3
32 Coal, coke and briquettes164151-8.11 5691 75611.9
33 Petroleum, petroleum products2 0292 94945.419 87628 77044.7
334 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude); preparations, n.e.s., containing by weight 70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparation1 5421 6255.413 28415 11813.8
34 Gas , natural and manufactured67147118.75201 01194.4
342 Liquefied propane and butane62143129.1430968125.0
35 Electric current32207541.21 1152 471121.6
 
4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes61469413.25 0845 1110.5
41 Animal oils and fats266238-10.71 9702 1629.8
42 Fixed vegetable fats and oils, crude, refined or fractionated32042833.92 9522 766-6.3
43 Animal or vegetable fats and oils, processed28282.416318212.2
 
5 Chemicals and related products n.e.s.5 8045 8410.651 30853 4694.2
51 Organic chemicals656602-8.26 8247 1715.1
52 Inorganic chemicals42150018.73 8414 1147.1
53 Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials3233333.12 6622 8988.9
54 Medicinal and pharmaceutical products1 6891 478-12.513 74514 3234.2
55 Essential oils and resinoids etc680678-0.35 4686 03710.4
56 Fertilizers20123818.21 9232 25617.3
57 Plastics in primary forms4394410.53 6213 8125.3
58 Plastics in non-primary forms4935286.94 3574 7649.3
59 Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.9021 04315.68 8668 094-8.7
 
6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material9 9078 274-16.578 65683 0515.6
61 Leather, leather manufactures, furskins4946-5.7420389-7.3
62 Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.5265606.43 9714 2948.1
63 Cork and wood manufactures6777287.65 6635 7812.1
64 Paper, paperboard and manufact. thereof6696994.55 5615 7393.2
65 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles6386898.05 7616 2548.5
66 Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.8409027.46 8927 3837.1
67 Iron and steel1 2651 212-4.210 39912 56720.8
68 Non-ferrous metals8298715.07 0629 12529.2
69 Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.4 4142 567-41.832 92631 518-4.3
 
7 Machinery and transport equipment24 86024 450-1.6191 716201 9955.4
71 Power generating machinery and equipment7261 18062.69 20612 56236.5
72 Machinery for special industries1 8771 9373.218 25020 17710.6
73 Metal working machinery10112018.91 1141 2249.8
74 General industrial machinery and equipment2 4412 74312.422 27925 82215.9
75 Office machines, data processing machines1 3391 50212.212 20713 64411.8
76 Telecommunications apparatus and equipment.2 0662 33112.918 10218 4381.9
77 Electrical machinery and apparatus2 7753 09911.723 77127 26414.7
78 Road vehicles7 3016 620-9.356 32559 3545.4
781 Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons5 1694 469-13.635 30036 7284.0
79 Other transport equipment including ships6 2354 917-21.130 46323 511-22.8
 
8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles9 0349 3423.473 10875 0032.6
81 Prefabricated buildings.964938-2.86 6146 9024.4
82 Furniture and parts thereof1 2541 2560.211 51111 6921.6
83 Travel goods, handbags etc.1451557.01 3011 3675.1
84 Articles of apparel and accessories2 1732 141-1.415 47615 9653.2
85 Footwear51257011.24 3164 5715.9
87 Professional and scientific instruments1 2301 44817.711 88312 0761.6
88 Photographic and optical goods270266-1.52 2382 3505.0
89 Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s2 4862 5693.319 77020 0791.6
 
9 Commodities and transactions85928.38758780.4
91 Postal packages not classified according to kind00.0-.
93 Special transactions and commodities not classified according to kind323612.63173417.6
96 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender0023.381466.4
97 Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold, ores and concentrates)52555.6550524-4.7

Table 6 
Exports of goods, main groups by SITC

Exports of goods, main groups by SITC
NOK MillionChange in per centNOK MillionChange in per cent
September 2017September 2018September 2017 - September 2018So far this yearSeptember 2017 - September 2018
September 2017September 2018
1Due to confidentiality in commodity group 56, this group can not be published separately. This group is included in group 59.
Total66 48881 01221.8628 388724 33315.3
Of which:
Crude oil (part of SITC 333)16 94825 67151.5164 591198 65220.7
Natural gas (SITC 343)13 81419 11838.4142 615180 37926.5
Natural gas condensates (part of SITC 333)24936948.23 7144 65325.3
Ships and oil platforms (part of SITC 793)8061 01525.99 3956 992-25.6
Mainland exports34 67134 8390.5308 073333 6588.3
 
0 Food and live animals8 3948 133-3.171 37773 9203.6
00 Live animals other than animals of div.03349.7244584.4
01 Meat and meat preparations3520-44.4199185-6.9
02 Dairy products and birds' eggs7461-16.9569558-1.9
03 Fish, crustac.,molluscs and prep. thereof7 8297 521-3.966 84168 8052.9
04 Cereals and cereal preparations3534-3.827430410.6
05 Vegetables and fruit121742.711415132.9
06 Sugars, sugar prepatations and honey65-26.0354325.6
07 Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices414510.02973166.6
08 Feeding stuff for animals (not cereals)21528733.41 8172 30526.8
09 Miscellaneous edible products142139-2.01 2071 2070.0
 
1 Beverages and tobacco849310.666272910.0
11 Beverages839210.06557209.9
12 Tobacco and tobacco manufactures1270.08924.1
 
2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels1 4701 430-2.712 01513 22010.0
21 Hides, skins and furskins, raw3534-4.4423365-13.7
22 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits0028.25511.6
23 Crude rubber33-9.64032-20.0
24 Wood, lumber and cork316299-5.52 4342 82916.2
25 Pulp and waste paper221206-6.52 1412 099-1.9
26 Textile fibres and their waste202522.91922056.4
27 Crude fertilizers and crude minerales31936113.12 8023 16012.7
28 Metalliferous ores and metal scrap519459-11.63 6864 16713.0
29 Crude animal and vegetable materials364319.029235822.9
 
3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials36 69252 03641.8360 538448 22524.3
32 Coal, coke and briquettes0074.4322-92.4
33 Petroleum, petroleum products20 86830 14844.5199 791245 68823.0
334 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude); preparations, n.e.s., containing by weight 70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparation3 6104 07112.831 05041 82334.7
34 Gas , natural and manufactured15 17121 00438.4156 476197 02925.9
342 Liquefied propane and butane1 1981 67039.311 85714 32220.8
35 Electric current65488435.24 2385 50529.9
 
4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes15518217.51 5491 6899.0
41 Animal oils and fats68691.574487818.0
42 Fixed vegetable fats and oils, crude, refined or fractionated344224.2370317-14.4
43 Animal or vegetable fats and oils, processed537133.943549413.6
 
5 Chemicals and related products n.e.s.4 3994 7648.340 56944 2939.2
51 Organic chemicals1 3871 252-9.711 96612 2182.1
52 Inorganic chemicals668623-6.76 0356 4386.7
53 Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials171156-8.71 4051 5369.3
54 Medicinal and pharmaceutical products5996213.64 5115 78628.3
55 Essential oils and resinoids etc11713615.71 0451 1388.9
56 Fertilizers1::::::
57 Plastics in primary forms487468-3.84 1734 5068.0
58 Plastics in non-primary forms131127-3.61 1841 138-3.9
59 Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.8381 38164.810 24911 53212.5
 
6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material6 7945 718-15.860 11161 5472.4
61 Leather, leather manufactures, furskins85-36.153577.6
62 Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.6758-12.6589532-9.7
63 Cork and wood manufactures145124-14.61 1611 2275.7
64 Paper, paperboard and manufact. thereof4414798.53 8704 1747.9
65 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles135134-1.01 1501 1822.7
66 Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.1421473.51 2431 181-5.0
67 Iron and steel1 3151 031-21.511 31110 713-5.3
68 Non-ferrous metals3 8202 753-27.934 43036 1465.0
69 Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.72198536.76 3056 3350.5
 
7 Machinery and transport equipment6 1296 76310.362 74363 3441.0
71 Power generating machinery and equipment50276652.66 3085 963-5.5
72 Machinery for special industries77185010.27 4068 75118.2
73 Metal working machinery9067-26.0613470-23.4
74 General industrial machinery and equipment9721 08511.711 27911 6443.2
75 Office machines, data processing machines22625613.51 8251 9356.0
76 Telecommunications apparatus and equipment.546487-10.84 5314 6542.7
77 Electrical machinery and apparatus926901-2.79 83011 36715.6
78 Road vehicles64373414.35 5275 9627.9
79 Other transport equipment including ships1 4531 61611.215 42512 599-18.3
 
8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles2 3161 845-20.318 22516 749-8.1
81 Prefabricated buildings.126103-18.41 0981 048-4.5
82 Furniture and parts thereof2472542.52 0342 0340.0
83 Travel goods, handbags etc.7813.0738719.2
84 Articles of apparel and accessories10796-9.86336330.0
85 Footwear1616-0.710112321.0
87 Professional and scientific instruments7698358.57 8336 888-12.1
88 Photographic and optical goods192110.8180175-2.5
89 Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s1 025513-50.06 2735 760-8.2
 
9 Commodities and transactions5649-12.55986193.5
91 Postal packages not classified according to kind00.00.
93 Special transactions and commodities not classified according to kind10-93.5210411.0
96 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender0035.211-0.6
97 Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold, ores and concentrates)5449-10.85956072.1

Table 7 
Imports and exports of goods, by trade areas, continents and countries.

Imports and exports of goods, by trade areas, continents and countries.
ImportsExports
NOK Million - so far this yearChange in per centNOK Million - so far this yearChange in per cent
September 2017September 2018September 2017September 2018
Total490 396529 0087.9628 388724 33315.3
 
Trade areas
Nordic countries97 900107 3729.785 74898 42514.8
EFTA7 9987 666-4.25 5986 0508.1
EU296 424319 8697.9505 303594 41717.6
OECD376 990404 7867.4561 159654 96416.7
Developing countries91 99795 6384.046 52650 5948.7
LDC - least developed countries2 8183 24515.22 5324 30870.1
 
Continents and countries
Europe320 044347 4678.6520 318608 65417.0
Belgium7 5478 1097.429 22637 09626.9
Denmark27 13229 1327.429 74136 05121.2
Estonia4 0544 2314.41 1441 2216.7
Finland10 96911 9729.19 37610 82615.5
France15 28216 95010.937 71745 92721.8
Greece51959815.2837731-12.7
Ireland4 3133 548-17.77 1348 25815.8
Iceland2 2511 847-17.93 3894 02818.9
Italy15 86717 1087.88 71210 27718.0
Lithuania5 4526 21113.94 9034 108-16.2
Netherlands19 18619 002-1.062 17784 60636.1
Poland16 75417 6535.413 95716 42517.7
Portugal1 9081 9944.53 5813 9209.5
Romania1 8382 73548.858966813.4
Russia8 86013 03047.11 6601 89714.3
Slovakia2 4032 71312.926334832.3
Spain9 98010 9269.513 94712 181-12.7
United Kingdom24 31127 77014.2139 286155 11211.4
Switzerland5 7025 7741.32 1972 022-8.0
Sweden56 97863 64411.742 46046 99710.7
Czech Republic5 2066 05816.41 4921 437-3.7
Turkey5 1034 912-3.74 9614 587-7.5
Germany56 75057 6681.694 426112 78919.4
Hungary1 9722 1237.77097728.9
Austria3 6734 45321.21 5291 351-11.6
Other countires in Europe6 0347 30621.14 9055 0192.3
 
Asia108 513101 176-6.852 54951 918-1.2
Hong Kong71189525.91 1111 34721.2
India2 9393 43716.91 8761 699-9.4
Japan10 6049 823-7.47 2688 10811.6
China48 28850 8835.412 89914 57613.0
Malaysia2 1912 86230.61 7821 216-31.8
Singapore2 3432 3530.46 8543 754-45.2
South Korea23 50515 569-33.85 8227 69532.2
Taiwan3 2543 082-5.31 2591 54222.5
Thailand4 9142 487-49.41 8941 777-6.2
Vietnam3 4243 6456.52 4151 220-49.5
Other countires in Asia6 3406 140-3.29 3698 984-4.1
 
North and Central America44 16459 68135.140 88441 7772.2
Canada10 22712 32220.57 6455 652-26.1
United States30 96043 89541.829 76632 5909.5
Other countries in North- and Central-America2 9773 46416.43 4733 535-53.6
 
South America10 52612 23216.24 1555 57634.2
Brazil7 1018 84224.52 9722 834-4.6
Chile7047253.04661 062127.9
Peru1 0901 018-6.6799621.5
Other countries in South-America1 6311 6471.06381 584148.3
 
Africa6 0316 65910.49 12513 51548.1
Angola23143521.71 130917-18.8
Botswana1331448.3-0.
South Africa1 7052 37139.14631 032122.9
Other countires in Africa4 1704 001-4.17 53211 56653.6
 
Oceania1 1181 79260.31 3572 893113.2
Australia8231 49281.31 1421 80758.2
New Zealand292257-12.0178939427.5
Other countires in Oceania3431 333.337147297.3

Table 8 
Imports and exports of goods (imports excl. ships and oil platforms and mainland exports), by trade areas, continents and countries.

Imports and exports of goods (imports excl. ships and oil platforms and mainland exports), by trade areas, continents and countries.
Imports excl. ships and oil platformsMainland exports
NOK Million - so far this yearChange in per centNOK Million - so far this yearChange in per cent
September 2017September 2018September 2017September 2018
Total474 133526 96811.1308 073333 6588.3
 
Trade areas
Nordic countries97 006107 34210.759 66066 28211.1
EFTA7 1497 6647.25 5376 0509.3
EU293 103319 6409.1200 772220 80810.0
OECD362 583403 35511.2246 494272 64810.6
Developing countries90 06994 8655.344 16245 9894.1
LDC - least developed countries2 8183 24515.22 4054 30879.1
 
Continents and countries
Europe314 970346 81610.1214 627235 6269.8
Belgium7 5478 1097.410 69412 66918.5
Denmark27 12729 1297.418 04122 08122.4
Estonia4 0544 2314.41 1441 2216.7
Finland10 93611 9549.35 6715 7822.0
France15 28216 95010.910 11311 0459.2
Greece51959815.2788728-7.6
Ireland4 3133 548-17.72 8563 27714.7
Iceland1 4021 84531.63 3284 02821.0
Italy13 55217 10826.26 4586 4660.1
Lithuania5 4506 21114.03 0063 1294.1
Netherlands19 10118 965-0.729 82540 51335.8
Poland16 68417 6535.812 87313 1872.4
Portugal1 9081 9944.53 5813 372-5.8
Romania1 8382 73548.858966813.4
Russia8 86013 03047.11 6591 7586.0
Slovakia2 4032 71312.926334832.3
Spain9 96210 9269.77 4878 38111.9
United Kingdom24 19227 64314.327 02426 711-1.2
Switzerland5 7025 7741.32 1972 022-8.0
Sweden56 97263 63811.732 07333 8685.6
Czech Republic5 2066 05816.41 4921 437-3.7
Turkey4 1984 4947.14 0114 1814.2
Germany56 08257 6292.822 95422 055-3.9
Hungary1 9722 1237.77097728.9
Austria3 6734 45321.21 5291 351-11.6
Other countries in Europe6 0357 30521.04 2624 5767.4
 
Asia97 70999 8252.251 41446 725-9.1
Hong Kong711642-9.71 1111 30417.4
India2 9393 43716.91 6341 6994.0
Japan10 0819 823-2.67 2687 9168.9
China47 96250 5675.412 82413 1372.4
Malaysia2 1912 86230.61 7821 216-31.8
Singapore1 6492 35342.76 5413 656-44.1
South Korea14 69314 7880.65 6815 428-4.5
Taiwan3 2543 082-5.31 2591 3809.6
Thailand4 9142 487-49.41 7681 574-11.0
Vietnam2 9993 64521.52 4151 220-49.5
Other countries in Asia6 3166 139-2.89 1318 195-10.3
 
North and Central America43 80259 68136.327 76432 93718.6
Canada10 22712 32220.53 3453 288-1.7
United States30 96043 89541.822 68827 23920.1
Other countries in North and Central America2 6153 46432.51 7312 41039.2
 
South America10 52612 23216.24 1554 011-3.5
Brazil7 1018 84224.52 9722 663-10.4
Chile7047253.046655719.5
Peru1 0901 018-6.6799621.5
Other countries in South America1 6311 6471.06386958.9
 
Africa6 0116 62110.18 77912 25139.5
Angola23143521.71 130917-18.8
Botswana1331448.3-0.
South Africa1 7052 33336.84635048.9
Other countries in Africa4 1504 001-3.67 18610 83050.7
 
Oceania1 1161 79260.61 3352 10958.0
Australia8231 49281.31 1421 80758.2
New Zealand292257-12.017826548.9
Other countries in Oceania1434 200.01537146.7

Table 9 
Imports of goods from selected trade areas and countries, commodity groups by SITC. NOK million

Imports of goods from selected trade areas and countries, commodity groups by SITC. NOK million
So far this year
September 2018
Total importsFood and live animalsBeverages and tobaccoCrude materials, inedible, except fuelsMineral fuels, lubricants and related materialsAnimal and vegetable oils, fats and waxesChemicals and related products n.e.s.Manufactured goods classified chiefly by materialMachinery and transport equipmentMiscellaneous manufactured articlesCommodities and transactions
Total529 00833 4707 25234 77234 0085 11153 46983 051201 99575 003878
 
EU (incl. the Nordic countires)319 86920 8986 59312 86222 4661 93838 54752 589123 76139 381834
Nordic countries107 3727 9801 9446 56414 0891 29010 24620 60430 13313 751771
Developing countries95 6387 74113910 0777691 2503 07810 78434 55927 21030
Russia13 030911154834 3661 2709914 805571320
India3 4376600420294049673829540
Japan9 8236049304151 8686 6937710
China50 88374301866881 4635 84325 61516 94115
Singapore2 35316177011 0911225255220
South Korea15 56924139742729 5325 4372540
United States43 8957101733955 5642765 7401 57725 0144 4378
Canada12 322253139 51281902511741 0062950
Brazil8 8422 19715 34100162153962197
South Africa2 371425361 13901518304416108

Table 10 
Exports of goods to selected trade areas and countries, commodity groups by SITC. NOK Million

Exports of goods to selected trade areas and countries, commodity groups by SITC. NOK Million
So far this year
September 2018
Total exportsFood and live animalsBeverages and tobaccoCrude materials, inedible, except fuelsMineral fuels, lubricants and related materialsAnimal and vegetable oils, fats and waxesChemicals and related products n.e.s.Manufactured goods classified chiefly by materialMachinery and transport equipmentMiscellaneous manufactured articlesCommodities and transactions
Total724 33373 92072913 220448 2251 68944 29361 54763 34416 749619
 
EU (incl. the Nordic countries)594 41750 25645711 030410 02395026 14749 47636 4189 57486
Nordic countries98 42512 7822643 49345 2903957 22211 86312 9504 14719
Developing countries50 5949 284281 43212 71125011 0083 69910 4481 7340
Russia1 89727511033122853860513310
India1 69914027601548596219440
Japan8 1082 4821962 027101 0291 0401 2771460
China14 5762 596156791 517205 7768132 5805800
Singapore3 7544101469116071101 4894410
South Korea7 6951 9261582 268254838951 6234170
United States32 5904 67212221112 4953362 8254 0985 3932 4380
Canada5 6524618253 639192014946052000
Brazil2 83459326717148774625531030
South Africa1 03221301552917044126340

Table 11 
Mainland exports by county of production.

Mainland exports by county of production.1
NOK MillionChange in per centNOK Million - so far this yearChange in per cent
September 2017September 2018September 2017 - September 2018So far this yearSeptember 2017 - September 2018
September 2017September 2018
11) County of production is defined as the county with the highest value added. Where the export consists of a mix of goods from different counties, and the county of production is difficult to determine, the goods are regarded as originating from several counties. Where the value of an imported intermediate good is more than doubled, the good is considered to be produced in Norway. Otherwise, it is considered to be an export of a good produced abroad.
The whole country34 67134 8390.5308 073333 6588.3
 
County of production
Østfold1 2071 198-0.712 45712 9063.6
Akershus42459440.13 9434 88623.9
Oslo690601-12.96 4965 620-13.5
Hedmark3363607.12 9383 46718.0
Oppland5846429.95 0935 68811.7
Buskerud1 598926-42.110 8939 175-15.8
Vestfold1 7731 8232.815 84317 52210.6
Telemark1 5251 95228.015 56817 51112.5
Aust-Agder24544581.62 3502 64912.7
Vest-Agder2 3322 63513.021 14023 87612.9
Rogaland2 7753 14613.427 13531 12214.7
Hordaland5 3145 3180.149 46258 12017.5
Sogn og Fjordane1 259521-58.610 0598 538-15.1
Møre og Romsdal3 2952 787-15.428 37428 046-1.2
Trøndelag.2 222..20 583.
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)1 702.-100.014 385.-100.0
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)431.-100.04 357.-100.0
Nordland2 5892 267-12.420 25321 7067.2
Troms - Romsa885836-5.56 4947 0728.9
Finnmark - Finnmárku423350-17.34 3534 5203.8
Svalbard00.321-96.9
Jan Mayen--.--.
Norwegian goods produced in several counties1 4971 77918.811 82413 06310.5
Re-exports of goods produced abroad3 3013 64110.329 68031 1134.8
County not stated4887974 9446 47531.0

Table 12 
Mainland exports by county of production, commodity groups by the SITC. NOK million

Mainland exports by county of production, commodity groups by the SITC. NOK million
September 2018
Total mainland exportsDistribution by the SITC
Food, beverages and tobaccoFish (subgruop 03 of SITC 0)Crude materials except fuelsFuelsManufactured goods except food, beverages and tobacco
1County of production is defined as the county with the highest value added. Where the export consists of a mix of goods from different counties, and the county of production is difficult to determine, the goods are regarded as originating from several counties. Where the value of an imported intermediate good is more than doubled, the good is considered to be produced in Norway. Otherwise, it is considered to be an export of a good produced abroad.
2Nord-Trøndelag and Sør-Trøndelag is one county from January 2018 on.
3The text is changed from the point in time of publication of figures for March 2017. Direct transit was erroneously included.
The whole country34 8398 2277 5211 6116 87718 123
 
County of production1
Østfold1 1988731850926
Akershus59410016170477
Oslo601654331502
Hedmark36033251490177
Oppland64270251609
Buskerud92630450878
Vestfold1 8237053977787
Telemark1 95216275371 824
Aust-Agder44538022-385
Vest-Agder2 63512101302 610
Rogaland3 1463181841341 6671 028
Hordaland5 3188057661343 2921 087
Sogn og Fjordane521315312300175
Møre og Romsdal2 7871 7881 750156-842
Trøndelag22 2221 5261 50975-620
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)......
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)......
Nordland2 2671 3331 28575-859
Troms - Romsa8367757715-56
Finnmark - Finnmárku35029429443103
Svalbard0----0
Jan Mayen------
Norwegian goods produced in several counties1 77958052425688458
Re-exports of goods produced abroad33 64155115483 524
County not stated7977056311696

Table 13 
Revisions on preliminary monthly figures so far this year on imports, commodity groups by SITC

Revisions on preliminary monthly figures so far this year on imports, commodity groups by SITC1
New figuresChange from last publication of figuresChange from first publication of figures.
NOK millionPer centPer cent
Measure period so far this year
August 2018
1Revision since last publication of figures: The sum of the monthly figures ("so far this year") as they exist now, compared to the sum of the monthly figures as they were the first time they were published. Revision since first publication of figures: The sum of the monthly figures ("so far this year") as they are now, compared with the sum of the monthly figures ("so far this year") as they existed in the previous publication of updated figures for the current period. In the previous publication, the figures for months preceding the month indicated in the table header were already revised a number of times (see review of the revision practice in "About the statistics"). The normal trend is largest revisions from the first publication month - and minor changes throughout the year. This is illustrated in this table by the fact that the percentage change in "change from first publication of figures" is usually higher than in " change from last publication of figures ".
Total469 1140.21.1
Of which:
Ships and oil platforms (part of SITC 793)2 04030.0157.7
Imports excl. ships and oil platforms467 0750.10.9
 
0 Food and live animals29 6870.0-0.1
00 Live animals other than animals of div.031320.0-0.1
01 Meat and meat preparations9490.0-0.1
02 Dairy products and birds' eggs9590.0-0.1
03 Fish, crustac.,molluscs and prep. thereof2 978-0.2-0.1
04 Cereals and cereal preparations3 681-0.2-0.2
05 Vegetables and fruit8 6690.00.0
06 Sugars, sugar prepatations and honey9430.0-1.2
07 Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices2 3190.0-0.1
08 Feeding stuff for animals (not cereals)4 9000.0-0.2
09 Miscellaneous edible products4 1580.00.1
 
1 Beverages and tobacco6 4840.00.0
11 Beverages4 4170.0-0.1
12 Tobacco and tobacco manufactures2 0670.00.1
 
2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels31 575-0.2-0.2
21 Hides, skins and furskins, raw11-0.1-0.9
22 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits1 3980.00.0
23 Crude rubber112-4.5-4.5
24 Wood, lumber and cork3 1870.0-0.1
25 Pulp and waste paper350-0.1-0.1
26 Textile fibres and their waste810.40.2
27 Crude fertilizers and crude minerales2 289-0.2-0.2
28 Metalliferous ores and metal scrap22 033-0.2-0.2
29 Crude animal and vegetable materials2 1140.20.1
 
3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials30 5530.715.6
32 Coal, coke and briquettes1 6050.00.4
33 Petroleum, petroleum products25 8200.819.1
334 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude); preparations, n.e.s., containing by weight 70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparation13 4940.00.1
34 Gas , natural and manufactured8640.0-1.6
342 Liquefied propane and butane8250.0-1.7
35 Electric current2 2640.00.0
 
4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes4 4160.00.0
41 Animal oils and fats1 9240.0-0.1
42 Fixed vegetable fats and oils, crude, refined or fractionated2 3380.00.0
43 Animal or vegetable fats and oils, processed1540.40.8
 
5 Chemicals and related products n.e.s.47 6280.0-0.2
51 Organic chemicals6 569-0.2-0.2
52 Inorganic chemicals3 6140.0-0.1
53 Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials2 5650.0-0.2
54 Medicinal and pharmaceutical products12 8450.0-0.3
55 Essential oils and resinoids etc5 3590.0-0.1
56 Fertilizers2 0180.0-0.4
57 Plastics in primary forms3 371-0.1-0.3
58 Plastics in non-primary forms4 2360.0-0.2
59 Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.7 0510.0-0.2
 
6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material74 777-0.10.4
61 Leather, leather manufactures, furskins344-0.1-0.1
62 Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.3 7340.0-0.3
63 Cork and wood manufactures5 0530.0-0.2
64 Paper, paperboard and manufact. thereof5 0400.0-0.1
65 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles5 5640.0-0.2
66 Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.6 4810.0-0.2
67 Iron and steel11 3550.0-0.6
68 Non-ferrous metals8 255-0.1-0.2
69 Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.28 951-0.21.5
 
7 Machinery and transport equipment177 5450.40.7
71 Power generating machinery and equipment11 3820.00.3
72 Machinery for special industries18 239-0.10.0
73 Metal working machinery1 1040.0-0.6
74 General industrial machinery and equipment23 0780.1-0.3
75 Office machines, data processing machines12 1420.0-0.1
76 Telecommunications apparatus and equipment.16 1060.0-0.1
77 Electrical machinery and apparatus24 1650.0-0.2
78 Road vehicles52 7340.0-0.1
79 Other transport equipment including ships18 5944.08.4
 
8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles65 661-0.1-0.2
81 Prefabricated buildings.5 9650.0-0.2
82 Furniture and parts thereof10 4360.0-0.1
83 Travel goods, handbags etc.1 2130.0-0.2
84 Articles of apparel and accessories13 824-0.1-0.2
85 Footwear4 0020.0-0.1
87 Professional and scientific instruments10 628-0.1-0.3
88 Photographic and optical goods2 0830.0-0.3
89 Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s17 510-0.1-0.3
 
9 Commodities and transactions7870.00.0
91 Postal packages not classified according to kind00.00.0
93 Special transactions and commodities not classified according to kind3050.00.0
96 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender140.00.0
97 Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold, ores and concentrates)4690.00.0

Table 14 
Revisions on preliminary monthly figures so far this year on exports, commodity groups by SITC

Revisions on preliminary monthly figures so far this year on exports, commodity groups by SITC1
New figuresChange from last publication of figuresChange from first publication of figures
NOK MillionPer centPer cent
Measure period so far this year
August 2018
1Revision since last publication of figures: The sum of the monthly figures ("so far this year") as they exist now, compared to the sum of the monthly figures as they were the first time they were published. Revision since first publication of figures: The sum of the monthly figures ("so far this year") as they are now, compared with the sum of the monthly figures ("so far this year") as they existed in the previous publication of updated figures for the current period. In the previous publication, the figures for months preceding the month indicated in the table header were already revised a number of times (see review of the revision practice in "About the statistics"). The normal trend is largest revisions from the first publication month - and minor changes throughout the year. This is illustrated in this table by the fact that the percentage change in "change from first publication of figures" is usually higher than in " change from last publication of figures ".
2Due to confidentiality in commodity group 56, this group can not be published separately. This group is included in group 59.
Total643 3210.1-0.1
Of which:
Crude oil (part of SITC 333)172 9810.00.0
Natural gas (SITC 343)161 2610.2-0.6
Natural gas condensates (part of SITC 333)4 2830.10.0
Ships and oil platforms (part of SITC 793)5 9773.928.2
Mainland exports298 8190.0-0.2
 
0 Food and live animals65 786-0.1-0.3
00 Live animals other than animals of div.03410.0-0.2
01 Meat and meat preparations1650.0-0.2
02 Dairy products and birds' eggs4970.0-0.6
03 Fish, crustac.,molluscs and prep. thereof61 284-0.1-0.3
04 Cereals and cereal preparations2700.0-0.2
05 Vegetables and fruit134-0.2-0.5
06 Sugars, sugar prepatations and honey390.00.0
07 Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices2710.0-0.3
08 Feeding stuff for animals (not cereals)2 0180.0-1.1
09 Miscellaneous edible products1 0680.00.0
 
1 Beverages and tobacco636-0.1-0.5
11 Beverages628-0.1-0.5
12 Tobacco and tobacco manufactures80.00.0
 
2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels11 7900.0-0.1
21 Hides, skins and furskins, raw3320.00.4
22 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits50.00.0
23 Crude rubber29-0.2-0.6
24 Wood, lumber and cork2 5300.0-0.4
25 Pulp and waste paper1 8930.00.0
26 Textile fibres and their waste1800.0-0.3
27 Crude fertilizers and crude minerales2 799-0.1-0.2
28 Metalliferous ores and metal scrap3 708-0.1-0.1
29 Crude animal and vegetable materials3152.21.6
 
3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials396 1890.1-0.2
32 Coal, coke and briquettes20.00.0
33 Petroleum, petroleum products215 5400.00.0
334 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude); preparations, n.e.s., containing by weight 70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparation37 752-0.1-0.2
34 Gas , natural and manufactured176 0250.2-0.5
342 Liquefied propane and butane12 6520.61.1
35 Electric current4 6220.00.0
 
4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes1 5070.0-1.8
41 Animal oils and fats809-0.10.3
42 Fixed vegetable fats and oils, crude, refined or fractionated2750.0-4.0
43 Animal or vegetable fats and oils, processed4230.0-4.3
 
5 Chemicals and related products n.e.s.39 529-0.1-0.2
51 Organic chemicals10 966-0.5-0.2
52 Inorganic chemicals5 8150.00.1
53 Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials1 3800.2-0.1
54 Medicinal and pharmaceutical products5 165-0.1-0.8
55 Essential oils and resinoids etc1 0030.0-0.3
56 Fertilizers2:::
57 Plastics in primary forms4 0380.0-0.2
58 Plastics in non-primary forms1 012-0.1-0.2
59 Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.10 1510.0-0.1
 
6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material55 8290.0-0.1
61 Leather, leather manufactures, furskins520.0-10.6
62 Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.4730.0-0.2
63 Cork and wood manufactures1 1030.0-0.2
64 Paper, paperboard and manufact. thereof3 6960.00.0
65 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles1 048-0.3-0.8
66 Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.1 0330.10.1
67 Iron and steel9 6820.3-0.2
68 Non-ferrous metals33 3920.0-0.1
69 Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.5 350-0.1-0.2
 
7 Machinery and transport equipment56 5810.41.9
71 Power generating machinery and equipment5 197-0.8-4.5
72 Machinery for special industries7 901-0.8-0.8
73 Metal working machinery4030.0-0.8
74 General industrial machinery and equipment10 5590.00.1
75 Office machines, data processing machines1 679-0.2-1.1
76 Telecommunications apparatus and equipment.4 166-0.10.1
77 Electrical machinery and apparatus10 4660.0-0.4
78 Road vehicles5 228-0.1-0.7
79 Other transport equipment including ships10 9833.315.2
 
8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles14 904-0.1-0.8
81 Prefabricated buildings.946-0.1-3.8
82 Furniture and parts thereof1 780-0.1-0.3
83 Travel goods, handbags etc.790.00.0
84 Articles of apparel and accessories537-0.1-1.0
85 Footwear1070.0-0.5
87 Professional and scientific instruments6 0530.0-0.4
88 Photographic and optical goods154-0.1-0.2
89 Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s5 247-0.1-1.0
 
9 Commodities and transactions5700.10.1
91 Postal packages not classified according to kind00.00.0
93 Special transactions and commodities not classified according to kind100.00.0
96 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender10.00.0
97 Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold, ores and concentrates)5590.10.1

About the statistics

The external trade statistics comprise the development in Norway's trade with other countries in terms of value and volume figures. Aggregated as well as detailed imports and exports figures between Norway and partner countries, trade regions and continents are provided.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Imports and exports
Imports comprise mainly foreign manufactured goods entering Norway. This can also include re-importation of originally Norwegian-produced goods and processed goods. Exports comprise domestically produced goods sent out of Norway, i.e. the Norwegian statistical territory as defined in Section of population. Also included are reexportation of originally foreign-produced goods and processed goods.

Trade in goods is based on the physical movement of goods across borders, but for some items, such as ships, oil platforms and aircraft, trading often takes place without the occurrence of such movement. Whether there has been an import or export of such goods is therefore determined based on whether a change in economic ownership has taken place cf. also described in the Section of population. Economic ownership is defined as the person entitled to claim the economic benefit and who has the legal responsibility for the risk of the item.

Mainland exports
As from March 2013, the statistics on external trade in goods will use the term mainland exports on the exportation of goods other than crude oil, natural gas, natural gas condensates, ships and oil platforms. Previously, we also used the term traditional goods for these exports, as well as for imports excluding ships and oil platforms. (Balance of payments and the research department still use the term traditional goods. The balance of payments also includes items such as naphtha, propane and butane in its collective term crude oil and natural gas, external trade in goods does not.)

Goods

A good is a physical object. Trade in goods, both relate to and are bound by trade in services. Services are more intangible by nature than goods. Production and consumption of goods is often independent of each other, while a service is difficult to distinguish in the same manner. Sometimes it is difficult to determine whether an object is a commodity or a service, e.g. software. Software may be defined as a service even if it is stored in a physical product and production and consumption take place independently. The content, i.e. the developed software, is mostly a service.

Country
Country of origin is used for imports. With regard to exports, the country of destination is used.

For raw materials, the country of origin is determined according to where the goods are produced. For manufactured goods (processed and refined goods), this is the country in which the goods have obtained the form they have at the time of import. The country of destination is defined as the country, which, on the date of export, is the last known country for which the goods are intended.

For more specific principles in relation to country of origin, the rule for ships, aircraft and oil platforms is that country of origin is the country that previously owned the goods (economic ownership). For Norwegian-produced goods sold abroad and subsequently bought in Norway, the country from which the goods are imported shall be given as the country of origin (manufacturing country).

Mode of transport
Mode of transport is defined as the means of transportation used when goods cross the border, either by import or export (in the Database for Standard Classifications there is a detailed description of mode of transport ).

Quantity
For most goods, the quantity is expressed in kilograms (weight excluding packaging), except for ships and electricity, which are measured by gross tonnes and kWh respectively. However, for many goods, the quantity is also available in a different unit of measurement, such as pieces, barrels, cubic metres, carat, litres, pairs etc.

Statistical value
Statistical value is the value when crossing the Norwegian border. Duties, VAT and other taxes are not included in the statistical value.

Upon import, the value should be set to the CIF (Cost Insurance Freight) value, i.e. the value of the goods at the Norwegian border, including the costs associated with the delivery of goods to the border, transport costs and insurance. Similarly, for exports it is the value at the Norwegian border, including the costs associated with transporting it there, called FOB (Free On Board) value. CIF and FOB are two types of delivery terms called Incoterms. The delivery terms are an agreement between buyer and seller as to who bears the risk, responsibility and cost of transportation of the goods to the agreed place. In the Database for Standard Classifications there is an overview of the different delivery terms .

For crude oil exported by ship directly from installations on the Norwegian continental shelf, the value upon departure from the installation is used. In the case of crude oil and natural gas that is piped abroad, this value is determined based onon when it leaves the Norwegian continental shelf. The value of transport in international waters and into a terminal abroad is regarded as export of services.

The statistical value of exports and imports of ships is the transfer value including takeover of debt. With regard toto fish landed abroad (exported) by Norwegian vessels and caught outside the Norwegian customs border, the statistical value is the value of the fish paid to the fishing operator upon the sale of stock (minus the sales organisation fee).

County of production
The county of production is defined as the county in which the added value is greatest.

Standard classifications

Classification of goods
The classification by HS (the international customs and statistics nomenclature, the Harmonized System) is a 6-digit grouping of goods organised primarily according to the material characteristics of goods at the time of crossing the border. Only in exceptional cases is the later use of the goods of any significance to the classification. The WCO (World Customs Organization) is responsible for this nomenclature.

The Norwegian customs tariff is based on the HS, but has two more digits, which are national codes. The 7th digit reflects national customs divisions/tariff rates (bound in the WTO - World Trade Organization). The 8th digit is used to cover the national statistical needs and and among others the interests of the Norwegian Agricultural Authority and Ministry of Foreign Affairs interests with regard to import and export regulations. In some cases, the 8th digit is also used to distinguish between goods subject to duties and/or fees. The Norwegian version is published annually on our website along with a text version of the nomenclature developed by Statistics Norway. The detailed commodity list , which includes all commodity numbers, also provides information about the validity of each commodity number.

Due to technological developments and changes in international trade, the HS nomenclature is normally updated every 5 years – with the most recent implementation on 1 January 2012. In addition, minor changes are made in the Norwegian customs tariff every year. The EU also uses the nomenclature of the HS in its publication of foreign trade figures. However, the EU version; the Combined Nomenclature (CN) - which also has eight digits - is more detailed than the Norwegian version. As mentioned previously, only the first 6 digits are common internationally.

When publishing external trade figures, the UN Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) is mainly used. Here the goods are grouped by level of processing (raw materials, semi-finished and finished goods). As from 1988 to 2006, the SITC-Rev.3 is used, but as of 2007 the SITC-Rev. 4 is used.

The classification BEC (Broad Economic Categories); the UN classification of commodities by end use, which is based on the SITC, is also used to some extent. This classification is not considered to be a "standard classification" in the same way as for example the SITC, and it is officially acknowledged that countries may have their own version of this grouping in order to satisfy national needs. In the Database for Standard Classifications the Norwegian version of this classification is found.

The various nomenclatures are listed on the UN’s website , as well as correspondence tables between the different nomenclatures HS, SITC and BEC and their different versions.

The product classification CPA divides goods by industry group, and in external trade we use extracts from this. CPA (Statistical Classification of Productivity by Activity in the European Community) is the EU's central Product by Activity classification. It is a product group that is closely linked to industry, i.e. distinctive products within each activity can be linked to the activity classification NACE Rev.2.

Grouping by country
The Norwegian list of countries used follows the international standard ISO-3166. EU countries use the same standard, except for some deviations of less importance.

In the external trade publications these country groupings are frequently used:

Nordic countries - trade with Sweden, Denmark, Greenland, Faroe Islands, Finland, Åland and Iceland
EFTA - trade with Iceland, Switzerland and Liechtenstein
EU – in the Database for standard classifications current member states at any given time is available
OECD - for current member states at any given time see the OECD's website

Developing countries – as from 2007, the figures are according to the OECD’s DAC (DAC stands for Development Assistance Committee) for definitions of countries at any given time that are recognised as recipients of official foreign aid. The DAC list also includes a section on LDCs (Least Developed Countries - defined by the UN) - which we also use in the statistics.
(Until 2006, these countries were defined as developing countries in the Norwegian trade statistics: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), Croatia, Macedonia, Malta, Slovenia - Africa except South Africa - Asia excluding Japan, North and South America except USA, Canada and Greenland - Oceania except Australia and New Zealand.)

Former Comecon (only European Comecon countries in the Norwegian trade statistics): Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Estonia, Georgia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Hungary, Uzbekistan.

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: External trade in goods
Topic: External economy

Next release

Responsible division

Division for External Trade Statistics

Regional level

Statistics on imports and exports of goods are published at country level. Export figures are also given by county of production.

Frequency and timeliness

Monthly figures are released on the 15th of the month after the observation period (the previous month), or the first subsequent working day. These figures are preliminary. With regard to the current year, all the monthly figures are updated in every publication

Corresponding yearly figures are published together with the monthly figures for December. With regard to the current year, all the monthly figures are updated in every publication. Final figures for the preceding year are released twice. For the first time in May the following year, while the corrected final figures are published in May one year later.

International reporting

Reports are sent to the EU statistical office (Eurostat), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the United Nations (UN).

Microdata

Non-revised and revised micro data are stored in accordance with Statistics Norway's guidelines for storing computer files (DataDok).

Background

Background and purpose

The purpose of the external trade statistics is to provide information about the commodity flows between Norway and other countries. Exports and imports are important economic indicators both in describing structural changes and in monitoring the economic trends. The monthly statistics of external trade in goods have been published since 1913 (value figures were published for the first time in 1866).

With regard to essential changes in the statistics, the commodity classification in line with the Harmonised System that was introduced in 1988 entailed a comprehensive restructuring of the distribution at a detailed level in relation to the earlier CCCN nomenclature (the Customs Cooperation Council Nomenclature).

The statistics are mainly financed from State assignments, but also rely to some extent on market income.

Users and applications

The external trade statistics are a part of the national and international statistical system, and are used in the compilation of the national accounts and the balance of payment statistics in Statistics Norway. The statistics are aimed at covering the business sector’s need for data in this area for their planning of production, marketing and sales.

The statistics are also intended for prognoses and analyses performed by public authorities, research institutions and private organisations. International organisations such as the UN´s statistical office, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD),  the statistical office of the EU (Eurostat) and others make use of the information provided in the external trade statistics.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

The figures for external trade statistics are an important part of the quarterly balance of payments and national accounts and the annual national accounts .

Operational accounts (balance of payments comprises operating accounts and capital accounts), however, include several items on both the export and import side that are not included in the statistics on external trade. This applies to the export and import of services in their entirety. External trade statistics only cover the non-financial sector, while the balance of payments cover all institutional sectors (the non-financial sector produces goods and non-financial services, while financial firms are mainly concerned with financial disclosure and financial assistance services).

The balance of payments also collects estimates of trade in goods which are transported directly from abroad to the Norwegian continental shelf, imports of fuel and other oil products to Norwegian ships, aircraft and units abroad. Moreover the external account interprets some of the goods from the external trade statistics in goods as a service, such as computer games, software and licenses.

In the publication of the figures for external trade we give figures for crude oil, natural gas and condensates, while the balance of payments use the collective term “crude oil and natural gas”. Terms in foreign accounts also encompass items such as naphtha, propane and butane, while the external trade statistics do not.

In addition to the statistics mentioned, external trade figures are included in many of the other statistics published by Statistics Norway, for example:

- Exports of salmon ,  weekly figures of salmon exports are published in addition to the regular monthly trade figures
- Indices of volume and price of external trade in goods mainly use external trade data as the basis for calculating figures. In addition, the total number of imports and exports, as well as fish and some selected commodity numbers for waste paper and scrap metal, are used as basic data in the producer price index  and the  price index of first-hand domestic sales
- External trade data are also used as basic data for statistics on transport  , the external trade in ICT goodsstatistics on fishery and emissions of greenhouse gases

 

Mirror statistics
Mirror statistics, in the context of external trade statistics, refer to a comparison between the statistics of two or more countries: exports of goods from one country should in principle equal the imports of the same goods in the partner country.

However, discrepancies are often identified in these figures for several reasons. Although there are international guidelines for the production of external trade statistics, there may still be differences in what the countries include. An example is differences in the usage of statistical trade systems, general or special trade, which causes delimitations to the statistics content. Countries may also have different methods for data collecting and processing, which can create distortions. Furthermore, some countries collect data from customs authorities and others directly from companies. 

Basically, there should be a certain difference in value between the countries, as the exporting country provides the FOB-value while the importing country in addition to this adds costs for insurance and freight all the way to the location of delivery, the CIF-value (see Definitions). Some countries collect data from customs authorities, others directly from companies. A common source of error between countries is caused by different information about which is the country of destination. Different threshold-values for inclusion of data can also create distortions, f.ex. in Norwegian external trade statistics, declarations with value less than NOK 1 000 are excluded from the import statistics. Other countries may have other delimitations. Different practise of confidentiality and demands for confidentiality, inaccurate definitions of certain commodities as well as conscious and unconscious misuse of codes can lead to use of different classification codes between countries.

From a Norwegian point of view, there is a need for comparing external trade data with the corresponding statistics of our main trading partners, principally European countries. It is in this context important to have knowledge of the rules practiced by the individual partners.

The Statistical Office of the European Union, Eurostat, publishes external trade data for EU countries, totally for the Union and separate for each member country. This statistics are produced according to EU regulations, which defines external trade as trade between the European Union trade and third countries. As a consequence of this, exports to countries in the EU from a non EU-member state are recorded as imported to EU in the first country where the goods cross the borders of the European Union. When forwarding the goods to the country of destination, the good is recorded as an item dispatched from the EU-country that first received the goods. Information about the country of origin of the commodity is not included in the records. Several of the EU-countries publishes in addition to the data presented in the Eurostat database, Comext ,  separately external trade statistics produced after national methodology. For information about this, consult Eurostat's annual report: Quality report on International trade statistics .

 

Legal authority

The Statistics Act §§ 2-1, 2-2 and 3-2

EEA reference

EU regulations incorporated into the EEA agreement comprise contractual obligations pursuant toto EC regulations onon data collection and distribution of data to the EU’s statistical office, Eurostat. The current regulations are as follows:

Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries and repealing of Council Regulation (EC) No 1172/95

Commission Regulation (EU) No. 92/2010 of 2 February 2010 implementing Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries, as regards data exchange between customs authorities and national statistical authorities, compilation of statistics and quality assessment

Commission Regulation (EU) No. 113/2010 of 9 February 2010 implementing Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries, as regards trade coverage, definition of the data, compilation of statistics on trade by business characteristics and by invoicing currency, and specific goods or movements

Commission Regulation (EU) No. 1106/2012 of 27 November 2012 implementing Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries, as regards the update of the nomenclature of countries and territories

Production

Population

Statistics area and the economic territory
The scope of foreign trade statistics is based on international guidelines from the United Nations Statistical Commission.

The general recommendation is that the statistics should include all goods which add to or subtract from the stock of material resources of a country by entering (imports) or leaving (exports) its economic territory. In addition to the geographical dimension, a country's economic territory also includes ships, aircraft and oil platforms owned by national corporations. These are goods that are not necessarily located within the geographic area, but are still viewed as part of the material resources of a country. For these goods external trade is measured by the change of economic ownership.

There are two different statistical trade systems - the general trade system and the special trade system. UN recommends using the general trade system where a country's statistical area coincides with its economic territory. This implies that goods are recorded at the time they enter or leave the economic territory. The special trade system is used when the statistical area covers only a part of the economic territory. Statistics Norway follows, with a few exceptions, the general trade system.

The Norwegian economic territory consists of mainland Norway, Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Norwegian dependencies, territorial waters, including the airspace above these, the economic zone, the Norwegian part of the continental shelf, territorial enclaves abroad (embassies, consulates, military bases, research stations) and Norwegian ships, aircraft and oil platforms.

External trade statistics is mainly based on information drawn from customs declarations. However, the responsible area of the customs authorities only covers mainland Norway and its territorial waters. As a supplement, data on important trade in goods to and from the remaining areas of the economic territory are collected directly from respondents and registers.

The following are defined as statistical area:

Mainland Norway and its territorial waters
Customs declarations contain information on physical flows of goods crossing the customs border. Imports and export that are exempted from ordinary declaration are referred to in the Customs Act §§ 4-10 and 4-11. According to the recommendations from the UN, some flows of goods should be excluded from the statistics. This includes trade in Norwegian goods between the customs area and other parts of the Norwegian economic territory. To the extent possible, trade in foreign goods to and from foreign enclaves, ships, aircraft and oil platforms located in Norway are omitted. To distinguish this type of transactions customs procedure codes from the declarations are used. In general, trade transactions are recorded at the time when the goods enter or leave the customs territory. However there are some exceptions, cf. the treatment of goods in customs warehouses.

There are four different types of customs warehouses. Goods waiting on declearance,can be stored in either a general or a central warehouse. For imports the time of recording is set when the goods are taken out of the warehouse and not when they arrived in the economic territory. This means that the statistical processing of these data follows the special trade principle. However, in practice the time difference between storage and withdrawals from warehouses is usually so small that the statistical processing is considered to be approximately equal to the general trade principle. For the remaining two types of customs warehouse; duty free and storage for further processing, the statistical treatment is according to the general trade system.

Customs declarations of exports and imports of electric current do not provide enough information for statistical purposes, and data is therefore obtained directly from the respondent.

Svalbard and Jan Mayen
Import transported through the Norwegian mainland to Svalbard and Jan Mayen should be declared by customs. Data on exports of coal transported directly from Svalbard are collected directly from the respondents.

The Norwegian part of the continental shelf
Imports via the Norwegian mainland to Norwegian owned installations and vessels that operate on the continental shelf should be declared by customs. Exports of crude oil and natural gas delivered directly from the continental shelf are based on data from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate and the different operators.

Norwegian owned ships, aircraft and oil platforms
Exports and imports of ships, aircraft and oil platforms are based on information from Norwegian ship registers as well as from different respondents. Export of Norwegian goods (excluding bunkers) to foreign ships and aircraft in Norwegian ports and airports are covered by customs declarations.

Data on exports of fish caught by Norwegian fishing vessels outside the customs area and landed abroad is obtained from the Directorate of Fisheries.

 

In accordance with the UN recommendations the following trade in goods are not included in the statistics:

  • Goods in transit, ie goods attending the Norwegian economic territory to be directly transported to a recipient outside this area
  •  Goods traded through intermediate trade, ie goods transported between two foreign countries without entering the Norwegian economic territory
  • Goods physically crossing the country border, but defined as a service (including newspaper subscriptions, accompanied baggage, household goods)
  • Content delivered electronically (including e-books, downloadable games, etc.), defined purely as a service
  • Issued banknotes, securities and monetary gold
  • Samples, gifts and promotional material etc. with a low value
  •  Goods for repair or return after repair
  •  Goods in unaltered condition in return to vendor (claims etc.) and waste containers, replacement deliveries and free repairs (warranty)
  •  Items for temporary use, that are returned within 12 months (exhibition, demonstration, scientific research, loan, professional equipment, transport vehicles in international traffic, containers, equipment in use for the press, radio and television equipment, etc.)
  •  Change in ownership of non-financial assets
  •  Goods that are damaged on the journey to and from the Norwegian economic territory
  •  Satellites equipment moved to and launched in other countries without any change of ownership
  •  Goods functioning as means of transport (ship, aircraft, packaging, etc.)
  • Waste and scrap without any commercial value

 Furthermore goods totalling less than NOK 1 000 are omitted, these goods amounts to less than one per cent of the import and about 0.04 per cent of the export. Imports of goods for less than NOK 200 and exports of goods less than NOK 5.000 (except from goods that are subject to taxes and restrictions) are not subject to declaration by the Customs.

Data sources and sampling

The statistics are mainly based on administrative information obtained from TVINN, which is the Norwegian Customs’ electronic information system for the exchange of customs declarations between businesses and Norwegian Customs. Some data is, however, obtained from other sources, and more information on this can be found in the paragraph on data collection.

Sampling is not not relevant as external trade is a total count of the goods defined in the population.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Data collection

The vast majority of the data is, as mentioned, collected through the Customs’ TVINN register and transmitted electronically to Statistics Norway. However, some additional data, as shown below, is obtained separately.

Exports of crude oil and natural gas in gaseous state
Preliminary and final figures for exported volumes of crude oil and natural gas in gaseous state are collected through monthly reports from the operators and the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The prices, however, are obtained via various sources depending on whether they relate to crude oil or natural gas, and whether the data is being collected to compile preliminary or final figures.

From 2013 on, the development in the in gas prices from the producer price index (PPI) used to calculate the preliminary gas prices for foreign trade, while the level will be based on the value determined from the last registered price. PPI obtain figures for natural gas from the journal World Gas Intelligence (WGI).

Preliminary oil prices are still based on data from the operators.

For crude oil, the final prices: quarterly surveys from the licensees, as well as information from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy and the operators.

For natural gas, final prices: a quarterly average price based on information from a selection of licensees and operators.

Due to insufficient information about country of destination there are from 2013 on changes in the dissemination of the figures of exports of natural gas in gaseous state. From 2013, country of destination according to these figures will be based on the landing point of the pipelines with natural gas from the Norwegian continental shelf.

Imports and exports of ships and oil platforms
The data collection for vessels is based on current information from the Norwegian ship registers the Norwegian Ordinary Ship Register (NOR) and the Norwegian International Ship Register (NIS).

When it comes to oil platforms, information is collected from the Norwegian ship registers, the Customs’ TVINN register and importer/exporter.

Imports and exports of electricity
From 2016 information is collected from Customs' TVINN register. In previous years this information was received from the Nordic Power Exchange Nord Pool.

Imports and exports of aircraft
For some aircrafts, monthly reports are received from Statistics Sweden, while the rest are obtained through regular declarations in the TVINN system.

Exports of coal from Svalbard
Reports on the export of coal from Svalbard are received monthly from the exporter. 

Exports of fish caught by Norwegian vessels outside the Norwegian customs border
Since July 2010, the figures have been obtained from the Directorate of Fisheries (FDIR). Prior to that, the information was gathered through TVINN.

 

Data editing

Information from customs declarations is subject to statistical controls in the Customs declaration system (TVINN). The controls to check the estimated price, quantity and country were developed by the Customs in cooperation with Statistics Norway.

Data controls at Statistics Norway take place at different levels - some as soon as the data is loaded into the system (automatic recoding of variables). The manual part of the revision consists of different types of validity and probability tests. The former are controls of absolute errors, such as missing transport code, while the other type of test may check unlikely country codes or unreasonably high quantities for a specific type of good. The system aims to intercept the most serious errors in the data. Data collected from sources other than the Customs also undergo similar checks.

 

Estimations

External trade is based on a total count but some items are excluded, cf. section of population. There is no need for any statistical estimations of current figures, only aggregations, in order to enable us to publish in a timely manner.

 

Seasonal adjustment

 The seasonal adjustment method, which is used for the foreign trade monthly value series and the quarterly volume series, consists of pre-treatment of the values for the individual series using the seasonal adjustment programme X12-ARIMA. It was developed by the US Bureau of the Census, and is one of the most internationally known methods for seasonal adjustment. The purpose of the seasonally-adjusted figures is to show the real economic trends by eliminating interference caused by seasonal variations. There are two important corrections: one method adjusts for the number of weekdays of different kinds in each month. This can be important, since it is probable that exports and imports are distributed unevenly throughout the week. The second important correction is for the Easter holidays, since Easter can fall in different months and different quarters of the year. We assume that both imports and exports are affected the week before Easter, in the Easter week itself and the week after Easter. No special corrections are made for other holidays in the year.

Confidentiality

The Statistics Act § 2-6 covers the disclosure of information. The requirements for confidentiality in external trade of goods are practised so that data is suppressed only when the establishment/enterprise has a valid reason for confidential treatment and actively asks for it. This is called "passive confidentiality" and is in line with UN recommendations. This method is used by most countries. Exporters/importers can demand suppression when there are 3 or fewer companies that import or export an item type, or when a company has a market share of over 90 per cent, or if two firms have a market share of over 95 per cent.

Since Norway has a number of major manufacturers that are dominant in some product areas, some suppression of information exists on the export side. Between 5 and 10 per cent of mainland exports are affected by confidentiality. For imports, it is far less; around 1 per cent. Some commodity areas are more problematic with regard to dissemination, since suppression on highly aggregated levels must be carried out.

Comparability over time and space

The six-digit HS-based commodity classification is subject to revisions due to technological development and also development in the commodity spectres of the international trade. These adjustments are normally made every five years. The most recent HS revision was implemented on 1 January 2012. Furthermore, national adjustments are made every year at the national eight-digit level. These revisions can create breaks in the time series for some commodity numbers. Detailed information about this is available in the yearly Commodity List External Trade. Correspondence tables between the different editions of the HS are available on the UN website .

With regard to the divisions according to the SITC, the current SITC-Rev.4 was introduced in January 2007, when it replaced the previous SITC-Rev.3 (1988-2006). The relation between the figures for the years before and after 2007 can be misleading for some commodity numbers. The degree of influence depends on the value of the commodity numbers that now have a different group affiliation. Correspondence tables between the different editions of the SITC are also available on the UN website .

For the tables that use the CPA nomenclature, the 2008 edition is used for the whole series.

Other elements influencing the comparability over time: The imports and exports of ships and oil platforms in the statistics were extended in 1991 to include transactions that concern vessels under a foreign flag with a Norwegian-registered holding company. Furthermore, the definition of developing countries was changed in 2007, which affects the figures slightly.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

Collection errors can occur from incorrect values, incomplete information or misinterpretation of data on customs declarations. Examples of this are use of wrong commodity number, country code, county of production or incorrect quantity.

Other sources of error include late updates, which sometimes occur for the trade with ships and oil platforms.It is also difficult to intercept the transit trade, i.e. the buying and selling of commodities in foreign territory where a Norwegian company is one of the partners. Neither do we have a good data basis to estimate the processing exports for the preparation of goods abroad or imports for processing in Norway.
The rules for customs clearance, which entail exemption from the duty to declare for exports of goods when the value is below NOK 5 000 and exemption for imports of goods when the value is below NOK 200, lead to lower figures than the real trade. This is not the best solution for preparation of the national accounts, where these lacking figures are estimated separately.
The calculation of seasonally-adjusted data beyond the usual seasonal effects is adjusted for the fact that trade is distributed unevenly across the week and taking into account the effect of Easter, as described in the section of estimations. However, beyond this nothing in particular is done. Therefore it would be natural to assume that the seasonally-adjusted December figures should be interpreted more cautiously because of the Christmas holidays.

The export trade statistics is a full count, so there are therefore no non-response errors or sampling errors .

Revision

External trade in goods publishes preliminary figures monthly. However, further revisions of the figures continue until April/May the next year, when the final figures are published. Corrections in data mean that the monthly figures can be changed until publication of the final figures. The difference between the preliminary release of monthly statistics and the final figures is usually small for mainland exports, typically below one per cent. At the detailed level and for individual months, revisions can have greater significance, in relative terms. Oil and gas figures can undergo major revisions, particularly in relation to oil and gas prices. As stated in the section for frequency and timeliness, we make some adjustments in the final figures. These adjustments will normally be of lesser importance, but sometimes relatively large defects or errors are revealed.