329171
/en/utenriksokonomi/statistikker/muh/maaned
329171
statistikk
2018-09-17T08:00:00.000Z
External economy
en
muh, External trade in goods, import, export, balance of trade (export minus import), mainland exports, imports excluding ships and oil platforms, trade ( between countries, continents and trade regions), international product groups (for example hs, sitc and bec), product groups (for example food, crude oil and metals)External trade , External economy
true

External trade in goods

Updated

Next update

Key figures

88.1

billion NOK – Exports of goods in August 2018

External trade in goods1
NOK BillionChange in per centNOK Billion - so far this yearChange in per cent - so far this year
August 2018July 2018 - August 2018August 2017 - August 2018August 2018August 2017 - August 2018
1The figures are marked with the symbol *. This is Statistics Norways standard symbol for indicating preliminary figures. Due to the data collection method, the preliminary monthly figures published for ships and oil platforms are often incomplete. In retrospect, therefore, the trade in these goods could in some cases lead to revisions. Please see tables 1-3 for the impact these figures have on the external trade.
Exports88.111.328.1642.814.4
Crude oil24.12.729.2173.017.2
Natural gas21.1-2.543.0160.924.9
Natural gas condensates1.0113.7102.44.323.5
Ships and oil platforms0.4-24.58.05.8-33.0
Mainland exports41.525.620.3298.99.3
Fish7.713.06.161.33.9
 
Imports56.33.02.6468.48.8
Ships and oil platforms0.00.0-99.81.6-86.0
 
The trade balance31.829.8128.2174.432.9
The mainland trade balance-14.831.620.6-168.0-15.0

See more tables on this subject

Table 1 
Imports of goods, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted main figures. NOK Million

Imports of goods, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted main figures. NOK Million
Total importsCommodities excl. ships and oil platformsShipsOil platforms
UnadjustedUnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjustedUnadjusted
Yearly figures
2013527 722516 826.10 896-
2014562 455549 943.6 1786 334
2015615 485588 519.8 71518 251
2016629 042609 376.19 666-
2017684 585662 504.11 86710 214
 
Monthly figures (last 25 months)
August 201662 94261 00863 2701 935-
September 201654 29351 19749 0683 096-
October 201652 74651 14848 4241 599-
November 201657 28752 10650 2495 181-
December 201649 31648 47750 137839-
January 201751 86648 54052 6303 326-
February 201748 82947 20651 0241 622-
March 201757 19255 88752 6011 305-
April 201743 98143 95943 68823-
May 201759 79859 09357 184705-
June 201767 15765 62863 7371 529-
July 201746 97846 03548 465943-
August 201754 86853 15155 1151 717-
September 201759 72654 63452 563984 994
October 201756 52456 29453 663230-
November 201784 95179 51676 3532155 220
December 201752 71452 56154 327154-
January 201854 86654 05758 717809-
February 201851 29550 93355 228363-
March 201864 33763 99860 320339-
April 201862 78362 78362 081--
May 201864 85164 80862 19943-
June 201859 24359 23657 6407-
July 201854 70554 70057 8134-
August 201856 31956 31558 2414-

Table 2 
Exports of goods, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted figures. NOK Million

Exports of goods, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted figures. NOK Million
Total exportsCommodities excl. ships and oil platformsMainland exportsShipsOil platforms
UnadjustedUnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjustedUnadjusted
Yearly figures
2013916 532909 538.364 367.6 993-
2014909 036901 683.387 295.7 353-
2015835 267826 330.403 973.5 6113 326
2016751 583739 078.386 536.12 506-
2017860 692849 666.418 543.11 026-
 
Monthly figures (last 25 months)
August 201659 56958 77561 75530 91932 077795-
September 201657 47957 25660 17834 92733 370224-
October 201668 95565 69262 24330 83730 7723 263-
November 201670 55068 88565 75333 16331 3491 665-
December 201672 37169 66866 60832 26432 8212 704-
January 201777 50373 78768 42731 83532 6523 716-
February 201770 34268 25970 86431 72933 3942 082-
March 201777 12275 91172 63638 77234 2221 211-
April 201767 95567 93268 95832 11035 33523-
May 201768 84968 45171 09735 03835 166398-
June 201768 38067 57370 21237 27834 702807-
July 201762 94562 94567 25332 12335 449--
August 201768 80368 45271 32134 51735 418351-
September 201766 48865 68269 06634 67133 805806-
October 201775 29675 17771 10137 44535 959119-
November 201778 85177 76374 41037 93236 5631 087-
December 201778 15777 73374 24035 09336 489424-
January 201883 50881 18275 47137 40537 3122 326-
February 201871 76171 67074 44734 97336 81991-
March 201878 14678 13974 93337 49437 2488-
April 201881 44881 44082 39137 43237 0117-
May 201879 84378 34981 36637 15337 0721 494-
June 201880 78479 83882 65339 84538 012946-
July 201879 20478 70184 48133 06135 089502-
August 201888 12687 74791 04141 51242 308379-

Table 3 
The trade balance. NOK Million

The trade balance. NOK Million
Exports-importsExports-imports (both excl. ships and oil platforms)Mainland exports - imports excl. ships and oil platforms
Yearly figures
2013388 809392 712-152 459
2014346 581351 740-162 649
2015219 782237 811-184 546
2016122 541129 701-222 841
2017176 107187 162-243 961
 
Monthly figures (last 25 months)
August 2016-3 373-2 233-30 088
September 20163 1866 059-16 270
October 201616 20914 544-20 310
November 201613 26316 779-18 943
December 201623 05521 191-16 213
January 201725 63725 246-16 705
February 201721 51321 053-15 477
March 201719 93020 024-17 115
April 201723 97323 973-11 849
May 20179 0519 358-24 055
June 20171 2231 945-28 351
July 201715 96716 910-13 912
August 201713 93615 301-18 634
September 20176 76211 048-19 963
October 201718 77218 883-18 849
November 2017-6 100-1 753-41 584
December 201725 44325 173-17 467
January 201828 64227 125-16 653
February 201820 46520 737-15 960
March 201813 81014 141-26 504
April 201818 66518 658-25 350
May 201814 99213 541-27 654
June 201821 54120 603-19 391
July 201824 49924 001-21 639
August 201831 80731 432-14 803

Table 4 
Exports of crude oil, natural gas and natural gas condensates, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted figures. NOK Million

Exports of crude oil, natural gas and natural gas condensates, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted figures. NOK Million
Crude oil, natural gas and natural gas condensates in totalCrude oilNatural gasNatural gas condensates
UnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjusted
Yearly figures
2013545 171.288 126.248 778.8 268
2014514 388.282 663.223 625.8 100
2015422 356.197 116.220 676.4 565
2016352 542.187 595.161 129.3 817
2017431 123.223 073.203 064.4 986
 
Monthly figures (last 25 months)
August 201627 85529 34118 10716 9819 60511 846144
September 201622 32925 08814 14715 3317 87310 185309
October 201634 85432 31718 20317 14016 22014 781432
November 201635 72233 46918 74318 77516 60814 219371
December 201637 40434 29220 72420 89516 55913 824121
January 201741 95237 62621 95621 90319 56116 461434
February 201736 53037 08418 87620 44317 06415 974590
March 201737 13935 61518 01418 53718 63115 792493
April 201735 82235 67519 33918 47716 05616 424426
May 201733 41435 27518 64817 98814 46616 759300
June 201730 29634 78317 06317 98312 97716 675256
July 201730 82232 26715 05914 67815 26917 128494
August 201733 93535 66318 68717 56814 77617 992472
September 201731 01134 73316 94818 30913 81417 827249
October 201737 73234 99017 56416 47919 88518 102283
November 201739 83137 36918 80318 85120 20717 320822
December 201742 64039 04822 11522 27820 35817 075167
January 201843 77739 21419 34219 31623 79520 000640
February 201836 69737 24017 56818 98718 36617 220763
March 201840 64539 26221 30322 01919 34216 498-
April 201844 00843 69822 25621 30721 06721 383686
May 201841 19643 37622 75121 79217 65620 525788
June 201839 99445 86022 09123 25117 90322 989-
July 201845 64047 81423 52223 02321 67224 263447
August 201846 23548 54324 14822 68421 13125 622955

Table 5 
Imports of goods, main groups by SITC

Imports of goods, main groups by SITC
NOK MillionChange in per centNOK MillionChange in per cent
August 2017August 2018August 2017 - August 2018So far this yearAugust 2017 - August 2018
August 2017August 2018
Total54 86856 3192.6430 669468 3988.8
Of which:
Ships and oil platforms (part of SITC 793)1 7174-99.811 1701 569-86.0
Imports excl. Ships and oil platforms53 15156 3156.0419 499466 82911.3
 
0 Food and live animals3 6804 12912.228 05629 6995.9
00 Live animals other than animals of div.031614-9.9162132-19.0
01 Meat and meat preparations130111-14.61 048949-9.4
02 Dairy products and birds' eggs1131195.284395913.7
03 Fish, crustac.,molluscs and prep. thereof320318-0.82 7842 9827.1
04 Cereals and cereal preparations4935103.43 3933 6878.7
05 Vegetables and fruit85495612.08 2508 6695.1
06 Sugars, sugar prepatations and honey140129-7.91 034943-8.8
07 Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices367341-7.02 5812 319-10.2
08 Feeding stuff for animals (not cereals)70292431.64 3504 90112.7
09 Miscellaneous edible products54570629.53 6114 15915.2
 
1 Beverages and tobacco74984813.36 0436 4857.3
11 Beverages5015326.43 9994 41810.5
12 Tobacco and tobacco manufactures24831627.22 0432 0671.2
 
2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels3 6754 60425.325 33931 62624.8
21 Hides, skins and furskins, raw11-1.41111-5.6
22 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits14227-81.01 4361 397-2.7
23 Crude rubber101868.49611822.5
24 Wood, lumber and cork37641811.33 1733 1880.5
25 Pulp and waste paper435732.3355350-1.5
26 Textile fibres and their waste101216.077814.6
27 Crude fertilizers and crude minerales25330119.21 9712 29316.3
28 Metalliferous ores and metal scrap2 6073 52935.416 21322 07836.2
29 Crude animal and vegetable materials2332413.32 0062 1115.2
 
3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials2 7213 38424.420 78830 34846.0
32 Coal, coke and briquettes18523225.01 4041 60414.2
33 Petroleum, petroleum products2 4282 91520.117 84825 61543.5
334 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude); preparations, n.e.s., containing by weight 70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparation1 6811 89812.911 74213 49414.9
34 Gas , natural and manufactured7765-15.745386490.8
342 Liquefied propane and butane7159-16.0368825124.3
35 Electric current31172455.41 0832 264109.1
 
4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes795740-7.04 4714 417-1.2
41 Animal oils and fats28535123.21 7041 92513.0
42 Fixed vegetable fats and oils, crude, refined or fractionated484364-24.72 6322 338-11.2
43 Animal or vegetable fats and oils, processed2725-7.213515413.8
 
5 Chemicals and related products n.e.s.6 0766 021-0.945 50447 6384.7
51 Organic chemicals1 020954-6.56 1696 5806.7
52 Inorganic chemicals4494888.83 4203 6145.7
53 Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials341311-8.92 3392 5659.7
54 Medicinal and pharmaceutical products1 5401 536-0.212 05612 8436.5
55 Essential oils and resinoids etc63371312.74 7885 35611.9
56 Fertilizers2312466.31 7222 01717.1
57 Plastics in primary forms42547111.03 1823 3736.0
58 Plastics in non-primary forms498493-1.03 8644 2379.7
59 Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.939808-13.97 9647 052-11.5
 
6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material7 8738 2865.368 74974 8568.9
61 Leather, leather manufactures, furskins5549-11.9371344-7.4
62 Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.609598-1.93 4453 7348.4
63 Cork and wood manufactures6136282.64 9865 0551.4
64 Paper, paperboard and manufact. thereof668650-2.74 8925 0413.0
65 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles6637228.85 1235 5668.6
66 Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.78989413.36 0526 4797.1
67 Iron and steel1 2361 196-3.29 13411 35624.3
68 Non-ferrous metals8051 09536.06 2338 26232.6
69 Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.2 4352 4550.828 51229 0191.8
 
7 Machinery and transport equipment20 24519 093-5.7166 856176 8406.0
71 Power generating machinery and equipment7271 09951.18 48011 38734.3
72 Machinery for special industries1 8681 866-0.116 37318 26111.5
73 Metal working machinery95994.41 0141 1048.9
74 General industrial machinery and equipment2 2982 69017.019 83823 05416.2
75 Office machines, data processing machines1 6611 7334.310 86812 14511.7
76 Telecommunications apparatus and equipment.2 0912 1864.516 03616 1140.5
77 Electrical machinery and apparatus2 7142 98810.120 99524 17315.1
78 Road vehicles5 8565 469-6.649 02352 7307.6
781 Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons3 7313 452-7.530 13032 2567.1
79 Other transport equipment including ships2 934963-67.224 22817 872-26.2
 
8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles8 9489 1081.864 07465 7022.5
81 Prefabricated buildings.816802-1.75 6495 9655.6
82 Furniture and parts thereof1 2481 2853.010 25710 4401.8
83 Travel goods, handbags etc.1771833.51 1561 2134.9
84 Articles of apparel and accessories2 3992 4401.713 30313 8324.0
85 Footwear6336502.83 8044 0035.2
87 Professional and scientific instruments1 2671 229-2.910 65310 633-0.2
88 Photographic and optical goods251242-3.21 9682 0845.9
89 Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s2 1582 2755.417 28317 5321.4
 
9 Commodities and transactions106106-0.1790787-0.4
91 Postal packages not classified according to kind00.0-.
93 Special transactions and commodities not classified according to kind40423.52853057.1
96 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender14340.981467.9
97 Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold, ores and concentrates)6560-6.6497469-5.8

Table 6 
Exports of goods, main groups by SITC

Exports of goods, main groups by SITC
NOK MillionChange in per centNOK MillionChange in per cent
August 2017August 2018August 2017 - August 2018So far this yearAugust 2017 - August 2018
August 2017August 2018
1Due to confidentiality in commodity group 56, this group can not be published separately. This group is included in group 59.
Total68 80388 12628.1561 900642 81914.4
Of which:
Crude oil (part of SITC 333)18 68724 14829.2147 643172 98117.2
Natural gas (SITC 343)14 77621 13143.0128 801160 93124.9
Natural gas condensates (part of SITC 333)472955102.33 4654 28023.5
Ships and oil platforms (part of SITC 793)3513798.08 5895 752-33.0
Mainland exports34 51741 51220.3273 402298 8759.3
 
0 Food and live animals7 7698 3797.962 98465 8424.5
00 Live animals other than animals of div.0325124.3214196.0
01 Meat and meat preparations2216-28.51631651.2
02 Dairy products and birds' eggs52568.34964970.3
03 Fish, crustac.,molluscs and prep. thereof7 2927 7346.159 01361 3393.9
04 Cereals and cereal preparations303517.923927012.7
05 Vegetables and fruit111968.310113432.0
06 Sugars, sugar prepatations and honey4647.7283937.2
07 Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices4039-1.92562716.1
08 Feeding stuff for animals (not cereals)19432265.81 6022 01725.9
09 Miscellaneous edible products12214620.51 0651 0680.3
 
1 Beverages and tobacco82876.957863710.1
11 Beverages81877.457262910.0
12 Tobacco and tobacco manufactures10-56.77818.0
 
2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels1 2461 44315.810 54511 78711.8
21 Hides, skins and furskins, raw1514-5.0388332-14.5
22 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits11-39.44510.2
23 Crude rubber53-33.63629-20.9
24 Wood, lumber and cork25628310.62 1182 53019.5
25 Pulp and waste paper2192211.01 9201 893-1.4
26 Textile fibres and their waste2827-0.81721804.5
27 Crude fertilizers and crude minerales369340-8.02 4832 80012.8
28 Metalliferous ores and metal scrap33052358.83 1673 71017.1
29 Crude animal and vegetable materials243028.125530820.7
 
3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials40 03955 00337.4323 846395 81122.2
32 Coal, coke and briquettes0079.9322-93.4
33 Petroleum, petroleum products22 96330 75233.9178 924215 56820.5
334 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude); preparations, n.e.s., containing by weight 70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparation3 7565 52847.227 44137 78337.7
34 Gas , natural and manufactured16 51323 30541.1141 306175 62024.3
342 Liquefied propane and butane1 4871 91528.810 65812 57418.0
35 Electric current56294668.23 5854 62228.9
 
4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes1771780.61 3941 5088.1
41 Animal oils and fats1061158.767680919.8
42 Fixed vegetable fats and oils, crude, refined or fractionated3717-54.3336275-18.2
43 Animal or vegetable fats and oils, processed344634.738242310.8
 
5 Chemicals and related products n.e.s.5 2825 173-2.136 17039 5859.4
51 Organic chemicals1 6181 6522.110 57911 0164.1
52 Inorganic chemicals742636-14.35 3675 8168.4
53 Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials165165-0.11 2351 37811.6
54 Medicinal and pharmaceutical products56868220.13 9125 16932.1
55 Essential oils and resinoids etc136132-3.29281 0028.0
56 Fertilizers1::::::
57 Plastics in primary forms47954112.83 6864 0399.6
58 Plastics in non-primary forms1101100.31 0531 012-3.9
59 Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.1 4641 256-14.29 41110 1547.9
 
6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material6 5928 51429.253 31755 8114.7
61 Leather, leather manufactures, furskins5870.0455215.4
62 Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.688525.8522473-9.3
63 Cork and wood manufactures1331340.91 0161 1038.6
64 Paper, paperboard and manufact. thereof4874992.43 4283 6967.8
65 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles1121206.91 0151 0523.6
66 Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.1271356.61 1001 033-6.2
67 Iron and steel1 1871 32211.39 9969 657-3.4
68 Non-ferrous metals3 6735 49349.630 61033 3929.1
69 Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.800717-10.35 5845 354-4.1
 
7 Machinery and transport equipment5 5717 65037.356 61456 356-0.5
71 Power generating machinery and equipment527479-9.05 8065 240-9.7
72 Machinery for special industries7161 02042.46 6347 96420.0
73 Metal working machinery11084-23.1522403-22.9
74 General industrial machinery and equipment1 1551 81957.510 30710 5632.5
75 Office machines, data processing machines216215-0.71 6001 6825.1
76 Telecommunications apparatus and equipment.45250712.23 9844 1724.7
77 Electrical machinery and apparatus9751 69273.58 90410 47017.6
78 Road vehicles5936245.34 8845 2337.1
79 Other transport equipment including ships8271 21046.313 97210 630-23.9
 
8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles1 9761 618-18.115 90914 912-6.3
81 Prefabricated buildings.10999-9.5971946-2.6
82 Furniture and parts thereof228218-4.41 7861 781-0.3
83 Travel goods, handbags etc.101112.5667919.9
84 Articles of apparel and accessories9789-8.05265372.1
85 Footwear152136.78510725.0
87 Professional and scientific instruments983698-29.07 0636 053-14.3
88 Photographic and optical goods2318-20.6161155-4.0
89 Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s511464-9.05 2495 2530.1
 
9 Commodities and transactions708013.15425695.0
91 Postal packages not classified according to kind00.00.
93 Special transactions and commodities not classified according to kind10-48.41101 277.3
96 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender0021.311-3.1
97 Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold, ores and concentrates)707913.75405583.3

Table 7 
Imports and exports of goods, by trade areas, continents and countries.

Imports and exports of goods, by trade areas, continents and countries.
ImportsExports
NOK Million - so far this yearChange in per centNOK Million - so far this yearChange in per cent
August 2017August 2018August 2017August 2018
Total430 669468 3988.8561 900642 81914.4
 
Trade areas
Nordic countries86 42595 57010.675 96085 96413.2
EFTA7 0796 847-3.35 0075 3056.0
EU264 273285 4498.0452 379525 69416.2
OECD332 712358 5207.8501 880580 79015.7
Developing countries79 11084 9447.442 35945 3507.1
LDC - least developed countries2 4142 85718.42 4044 18674.1
 
Continents and countries
Europe285 429309 9238.6465 863538 78615.7
Belgium6 6697 2028.026 21533 10026.3
Denmark24 03626 1698.926 73832 28220.7
Estonia3 5353 7145.11 0151 0887.2
Finland9 73410 6439.38 0668 6657.4
France13 74215 13610.133 78539 63217.3
Greece46454617.7749640-14.6
Ireland3 8303 227-15.76 1797 16916.0
Iceland2 0401 707-16.33 0753 50714.0
Italy14 44715 4336.87 4968 0407.3
Lithuania4 8525 3329.94 1663 738-10.3
Netherlands17 13816 894-1.455 05674 15534.7
Poland14 98315 6814.712 18714 26517.1
Portugal1 7331 7762.53 2173 65313.6
Romania1 6812 20931.447660627.3
Russia7 88911 41544.71 4671 72817.8
Slovakia2 1362 48316.224130426.1
Spain9 21910 1269.812 84410 705-16.7
United Kingdom22 00424 96113.4126 712140 68511.0
Switzerland5 0005 0992.01 9211 798-6.4
Sweden50 07956 33312.537 35341 0569.9
Czech Republic4 6255 51119.21 3171 295-1.7
Turkey4 7324 467-5.64 5244 276-5.5
Germany50 62851 8232.484 737100 13218.2
Hungary1 7531 8425.1633496-21.6
Austria3 2053 79218.31 3221 229-7.0
Other countires in Europe5 2756 40221.44 3724 5423.9
 
Asia90 42090 4740.145 87345 734-0.3
Hong Kong62582231.59741 16519.6
India2 5963 06818.21 6111 501-6.8
Japan9 4548 656-8.45 8956 59711.9
China41 94444 8326.911 67612 6138.0
Malaysia1 7782 67450.41 6731 080-35.4
Singapore2 0272 2289.96 0203 469-42.4
South Korea17 96914 622-18.65 2557 10635.2
Taiwan2 8852 753-4.61 1681 108-5.1
Thailand2 4462 207-9.81 7451 639-6.1
Vietnam3 0763 1963.92 1881 087-50.3
Other countires in Asia5 6205 416-3.67 6688 3699.1
 
North and Central America38 93449 39526.936 54738 1764.5
Canada9 11111 28823.96 5495 428-17.1
United States27 10034 92928.926 71229 86511.8
Other countries in North- and Central-America2 7233 17816.73 2862 883-65.1
 
South America9 51810 90914.63 7594 86629.4
Brazil6 3887 88523.42 7102 487-8.2
Chile664652-1.83931 031162.3
Peru995877-11.9759020.0
Other countries in South-America1 4711 4951.65811 258116.5
 
Africa5 4066 07312.38 69312 55244.4
Angola21142576.21 113869-21.9
Botswana11212511.6-0.
South Africa1 5062 27551.1411961133.8
Other countires in Africa3 7673 531-6.37 16910 72249.6
 
Oceania9621 62568.91 1642 706132.5
Australia6951 37497.79741 65670.0
New Zealand264232-12.1155907485.2
Other countires in Oceania319533.335143308.6

Table 8 
Imports and exports of goods (imports excl. ships and oil platforms and mainland exports), by trade areas, continents and countries.

Imports and exports of goods (imports excl. ships and oil platforms and mainland exports), by trade areas, continents and countries.
Imports excl. ships and oil platformsMainland exports
NOK Million - so far this yearChange in per centNOK Million - so far this yearChange in per cent
August 2017August 2018August 2017August 2018
Total419 499466 82911.3273 402298 8759.3
 
Trade areas
Nordic countries85 53195 54011.752 93758 75611.0
EFTA6 2306 8469.94 9465 3057.3
EU260 957285 2209.3177 738197 93811.4
OECD323 304357 56010.6218 072243 92711.9
Developing countries77 18184 1719.140 21841 3472.8
LDC - least developed countries2 4142 85718.42 2774 18683.8
 
Continents and countries
Europe280 360309 27210.3190 062211 20711.1
Belgium6 6697 2028.09 53811 35019.0
Denmark24 03026 1678.916 02119 80723.6
Estonia3 5353 7145.11 0151 0887.2
Finland9 70110 6259.54 9955 1733.6
France13 74215 13610.18 9109 88010.9
Greece46454617.7699636-9.0
Ireland3 8303 227-15.72 5023 05922.3
Iceland1 1911 70543.23 0143 50716.4
Italy12 13315 43327.25 7255 684-0.7
Lithuania4 8495 33210.02 6922 7592.5
Netherlands17 05316 856-1.226 32636 76539.7
Poland14 91515 6815.111 10311 7615.9
Portugal1 7331 7762.53 2173 105-3.5
Romania1 6812 20931.447660627.3
Russia7 88911 41544.71 4661 5898.4
Slovakia2 1362 48316.224130426.1
Spain9 20210 12610.06 5677 61315.9
United Kingdom21 88424 83413.524 36924 061-1.3
Switzerland5 0005 0992.01 9211 798-6.4
Sweden50 07356 32712.528 41329 8164.9
Czech Republic4 6255 51119.21 3171 295-1.7
Turkey3 8284 0495.83 5743 8708.3
Germany49 96451 7853.620 28019 856-2.1
Hungary1 7531 8425.1633496-21.6
Austria3 2053 79218.31 3221 229-7.0
Other countries in Europe5 2756 40021.33 7264 10010.0
 
Asia84 70389 5945.845 27441 197-9.0
Hong Kong625569-9.09741 16519.6
India2 5963 06818.21 4851 5011.1
Japan8 9308 656-3.15 8956 4058.7
China41 61844 5157.011 60111 553-0.4
Malaysia1 7782 67450.41 6731 080-35.4
Singapore1 4262 22856.26 0203 439-42.9
South Korea14 15114 3111.15 1144 843-5.3
Taiwan2 8852 753-4.61 1681 108-5.1
Thailand2 4462 207-9.81 6191 436-11.3
Vietnam2 6513 19620.62 1881 087-50.3
Other countries in Asia5 5975 417-3.27 5377 5800.6
 
North and Central America38 57249 39528.124 81729 73719.8
Canada9 11111 28823.93 0053 0642.0
United States27 10034 92928.920 26924 51420.9
Other countries in North and Central America2 3613 17834.61 5432 15939.9
 
South America9 51810 90914.63 7593 523-6.3
Brazil6 3887 88523.42 7102 316-14.5
Chile664652-1.839352633.8
Peru995877-11.9759020.0
Other countries in South America1 4711 4951.65815911.7
 
Africa5 3866 03512.08 34711 28835.2
Angola21142576.21 113869-21.9
Botswana11212511.6-0.
South Africa1 5062 23748.54114335.4
Other countries in Africa3 7473 531-5.86 8239 98646.4
 
Oceania9601 62569.31 1421 92268.3
Australia6951 37497.79741 65670.0
New Zealand264232-12.115523350.3
Other countries in Oceania1191 800.01333153.8

Table 9 
Imports of goods from selected trade areas and countries, commodity groups by SITC. NOK million

Imports of goods from selected trade areas and countries, commodity groups by SITC. NOK million
So far this year
August 2018
Total importsFood and live animalsBeverages and tobaccoCrude materials, inedible, except fuelsMineral fuels, lubricants and related materialsAnimal and vegetable oils, fats and waxesChemicals and related products n.e.s.Manufactured goods classified chiefly by materialMachinery and transport equipmentMiscellaneous manufactured articlesCommodities and transactions
Total468 39829 6996 48531 62630 3484 41747 63874 856176 84065 702787
 
EU (incl. the Nordic countires)285 44918 5505 88911 58720 4081 63934 36046 464111 38334 423746
Nordic countries95 5707 1121 7205 88512 7191 1439 15418 16126 86212 124689
Developing countries84 9446 8291269 1997061 0582 7419 75430 69823 80628
Russia11 415742124133 7821 1378414 324541090
India3 0686070390293578343518520
Japan8 6565048303731 6845 8456890
China44 83268801616881 3225 21122 63314 72814
Singapore2 22814177001 0791094674800
South Korea14 62219133642559 5024 5692330
United States34 9296291543934 6172255 0711 42718 4723 9348
Canada11 288234118 69681402191638872640
Brazil7 8851 82314 82500145134935176
South Africa2 275382331 1270151730538278

Table 10 
Exports of goods to selected trade areas and countries, commodity groups by SITC. NOK Million

Exports of goods to selected trade areas and countries, commodity groups by SITC. NOK Million
So far this year
August 2018
Total exportsFood and live animalsBeverages and tobaccoCrude materials, inedible, except fuelsMineral fuels, lubricants and related materialsAnimal and vegetable oils, fats and waxesChemicals and related products n.e.s.Manufactured goods classified chiefly by materialMachinery and transport equipmentMiscellaneous manufactured articlesCommodities and transactions
Total642 81965 84263711 787395 8111 50839 58555 81156 35614 912569
 
EU (incl. the Nordic countries)525 69444 7263979 852360 55585823 48645 27032 0318 44180
Nordic countries85 96411 4352383 13638 1643546 46510 63811 8633 65319
Developing countries45 3508 277251 24211 8452299 7203 0549 4061 5510
Russia1 7282291932120850756011710
India1 50113021701484547199380
Japan6 5972 2271841 210109219771 0381280
China12 6132 400136011 342194 9876762 0605150
Singapore3 469363136911572971 3244170
South Korea7 1061 7401562 264214318041 4263640
United States29 8654 17611220411 9082872 4913 5844 9252 1770
Canada5 4284117193 639181734485461660
Brazil2 4874582641713785411505880
South Africa96118601152915243108310

Table 11 
Mainland exports by county of production.

Mainland exports by county of production.1
NOK MillionChange in per centNOK Million - so far this yearChange in per cent
August 2017August 2018August 2017 - August 2018So far this yearAugust 2017 - August 2018
August 2017August 2018
11) County of production is defined as the county with the highest value added. Where the export consists of a mix of goods from different counties, and the county of production is difficult to determine, the goods are regarded as originating from several counties. Where the value of an imported intermediate good is more than doubled, the good is considered to be produced in Norway. Otherwise, it is considered to be an export of a good produced abroad.
The whole country34 51741 51220.3273 402298 8759.3
 
County of production
Østfold1 3741 86936.011 24911 7054.1
Akershus47061931.73 5194 29422.0
Oslo714585-18.15 8065 021-13.5
Hedmark31635713.02 6023 11019.5
Oppland4995183.84 5095 07812.6
Buskerud9111 21933.89 2958 250-11.2
Vestfold1 7092 14425.514 07015 70211.6
Telemark2 1831 764-19.214 04315 56310.8
Aust-Agder20423515.22 1052 2044.7
Vest-Agder2 4652 87216.518 80821 25713.0
Rogaland2 9964 38546.424 36127 87514.4
Hordaland5 5077 10829.144 14852 86019.7
Sogn og Fjordane1 0921 53740.88 8008 022-8.8
Møre og Romsdal2 9433 93833.825 07925 2820.8
Trøndelag.2 604..18 358.
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)1 637.-100.012 684.-100.0
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)409.-100.03 926.-100.0
Nordland2 2432 74922.617 66419 45510.1
Troms - Romsa833555-33.45 6096 23911.2
Finnmark - Finnmárku491444-9.63 9304 2397.9
Svalbard00.311-96.8
Jan Mayen--.--.
Norwegian goods produced in several counties1 6171 97121.910 32711 2909.3
Re-exports of goods produced abroad3 4393 5663.726 37927 3893.8
County not stated4644744 4565 68127.5

Table 12 
Mainland exports by county of production, commodity groups by the SITC. NOK million

Mainland exports by county of production, commodity groups by the SITC. NOK million
August 2018
Total mainland exportsDistribution by the SITC
Food, beverages and tobaccoFish (subgruop 03 of SITC 0)Crude materials except fuelsFuelsManufactured goods except food, beverages and tobacco
1County of production is defined as the county with the highest value added. Where the export consists of a mix of goods from different counties, and the county of production is difficult to determine, the goods are regarded as originating from several counties. Where the value of an imported intermediate good is more than doubled, the good is considered to be produced in Norway. Otherwise, it is considered to be an export of a good produced abroad.
2Nord-Trøndelag and Sør-Trøndelag is one county from January 2018 on.
3The text is changed from the point in time of publication of figures for March 2017. Direct transit was erroneously included.
The whole country41 5128 4667 7341 6218 76922 656
 
County of production1
Østfold1 86976514701 646
Akershus61910433140501
Oslo585555300501
Hedmark3571451300213
Oppland51874150495
Buskerud1 2194055-1 160
Vestfold2 14418-551 347724
Telemark1 76420181231 641
Aust-Agder23529022-183
Vest-Agder2 87213131502 844
Rogaland4 3853982051572 0451 785
Hordaland7 1089889622404 3701 510
Sogn og Fjordane1 53732432236-1 177
Møre og Romsdal3 9381 5601 52412802 250
Trøndelag22 6041 8521 8301030649
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)......
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)......
Nordland2 7491 3771 32671-1 300
Troms - Romsa5554704684-80
Finnmark - Finnmárku444410410131010
Svalbard00-0--
Jan Mayen------
Norwegian goods produced in several counties1 971605550229946192
Re-exports of goods produced abroad33 566752157263 409
County not stated4746651201387

Table 13 
Revisions on preliminary monthly figures so far this year on imports, commodity groups by SITC

Revisions on preliminary monthly figures so far this year on imports, commodity groups by SITC1
New figuresChange from last publication of figuresChange from first publication of figures.
NOK millionPer centPer cent
Measure period so far this year
July 2018
1Revision since last publication of figures: The sum of the monthly figures ("so far this year") as they exist now, compared to the sum of the monthly figures as they were the first time they were published. Revision since first publication of figures: The sum of the monthly figures ("so far this year") as they are now, compared with the sum of the monthly figures ("so far this year") as they existed in the previous publication of updated figures for the current period. In the previous publication, the figures for months preceding the month indicated in the table header were already revised a number of times (see review of the revision practice in "About the statistics"). The normal trend is largest revisions from the first publication month - and minor changes throughout the year. This is illustrated in this table by the fact that the percentage change in "change from first publication of figures" is usually higher than in " change from last publication of figures ".
Total412 0790.21.1
Of which:
Ships and oil platforms (part of SITC 793)1 5650.098.7
Imports excl. ships and oil platforms410 5140.20.9
 
0 Food and live animals25 5710.0-0.1
00 Live animals other than animals of div.031180.0-0.1
01 Meat and meat preparations8380.0-0.1
02 Dairy products and birds' eggs8400.0-0.1
03 Fish, crustac.,molluscs and prep. thereof2 665-0.10.0
04 Cereals and cereal preparations3 1770.0-0.1
05 Vegetables and fruit7 7120.00.0
06 Sugars, sugar prepatations and honey8140.0-1.4
07 Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices1 9780.0-0.1
08 Feeding stuff for animals (not cereals)3 9760.0-0.2
09 Miscellaneous edible products3 4530.00.1
 
1 Beverages and tobacco5 636-0.10.0
11 Beverages3 885-0.1-0.1
12 Tobacco and tobacco manufactures1 7510.00.2
 
2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels27 0230.10.0
21 Hides, skins and furskins, raw100.0-0.9
22 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits1 3700.00.0
23 Crude rubber100-0.20.0
24 Wood, lumber and cork2 770-0.1-0.1
25 Pulp and waste paper2930.00.0
26 Textile fibres and their waste680.0-0.2
27 Crude fertilizers and crude minerales1 9920.00.0
28 Metalliferous ores and metal scrap18 5490.10.0
29 Crude animal and vegetable materials1 8700.00.0
 
3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials26 9643.317.0
32 Coal, coke and briquettes1 3730.40.4
33 Petroleum, petroleum products22 7003.920.9
334 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude); preparations, n.e.s., containing by weight 70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparation11 5960.00.1
34 Gas , natural and manufactured7990.0-1.8
342 Liquefied propane and butane7650.0-1.9
35 Electric current2 0920.00.0
 
4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes3 6760.00.0
41 Animal oils and fats1 5740.0-0.1
42 Fixed vegetable fats and oils, crude, refined or fractionated1 9740.00.0
43 Animal or vegetable fats and oils, processed1290.40.4
 
5 Chemicals and related products n.e.s.41 617-0.1-0.2
51 Organic chemicals5 6260.10.0
52 Inorganic chemicals3 1260.0-0.1
53 Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials2 255-0.1-0.2
54 Medicinal and pharmaceutical products11 307-0.4-0.4
55 Essential oils and resinoids etc4 6430.0-0.2
56 Fertilizers1 771-0.4-0.5
57 Plastics in primary forms2 902-0.3-0.3
58 Plastics in non-primary forms3 7440.0-0.3
59 Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.6 243-0.1-0.2
 
6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material66 570-0.10.5
61 Leather, leather manufactures, furskins2950.0-0.1
62 Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.3 136-0.1-0.3
63 Cork and wood manufactures4 4270.0-0.2
64 Paper, paperboard and manufact. thereof4 3910.0-0.1
65 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles4 844-0.1-0.2
66 Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.5 5850.0-0.3
67 Iron and steel10 159-0.5-0.7
68 Non-ferrous metals7 168-0.2-0.1
69 Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.26 5640.11.8
 
7 Machinery and transport equipment157 7470.00.4
71 Power generating machinery and equipment10 287-0.10.4
72 Machinery for special industries16 3950.10.1
73 Metal working machinery1 006-0.2-0.6
74 General industrial machinery and equipment20 364-0.2-0.5
75 Office machines, data processing machines10 4120.0-0.1
76 Telecommunications apparatus and equipment.13 9270.00.0
77 Electrical machinery and apparatus21 1850.0-0.2
78 Road vehicles47 261-0.1-0.1
79 Other transport equipment including ships16 9090.04.4
 
8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles56 5950.0-0.2
81 Prefabricated buildings.5 1640.0-0.2
82 Furniture and parts thereof9 1550.0-0.1
83 Travel goods, handbags etc.1 0300.0-0.2
84 Articles of apparel and accessories11 3920.0-0.2
85 Footwear3 3520.0-0.1
87 Professional and scientific instruments9 404-0.1-0.3
88 Photographic and optical goods1 8420.3-0.3
89 Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s15 256-0.1-0.2
 
9 Commodities and transactions6810.00.0
91 Postal packages not classified according to kind00.00.0
93 Special transactions and commodities not classified according to kind2630.00.0
96 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender100.00.0
97 Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold, ores and concentrates)4080.00.0

Table 14 
Revisions on preliminary monthly figures so far this year on exports, commodity groups by SITC

Revisions on preliminary monthly figures so far this year on exports, commodity groups by SITC1
New figuresChange from last publication of figuresChange from first publication of figures
NOK MillionPer centPer cent
Measure period so far this year
July 2018
1Revision since last publication of figures: The sum of the monthly figures ("so far this year") as they exist now, compared to the sum of the monthly figures as they were the first time they were published. Revision since first publication of figures: The sum of the monthly figures ("so far this year") as they are now, compared with the sum of the monthly figures ("so far this year") as they existed in the previous publication of updated figures for the current period. In the previous publication, the figures for months preceding the month indicated in the table header were already revised a number of times (see review of the revision practice in "About the statistics"). The normal trend is largest revisions from the first publication month - and minor changes throughout the year. This is illustrated in this table by the fact that the percentage change in "change from first publication of figures" is usually higher than in " change from last publication of figures ".
2Due to confidentiality in commodity group 56, this group can not be published separately. This group is included in group 59.
Total554 6940.0-0.2
Of which:
Crude oil (part of SITC 333)148 8330.00.0
Natural gas (SITC 343)139 8000.0-1.0
Natural gas condensates (part of SITC 333)3 3250.00.0
Ships and oil platforms (part of SITC 793)5 3730.025.5
Mainland exports257 3630.0-0.2
 
0 Food and live animals57 463-0.1-0.3
00 Live animals other than animals of div.03370.0-0.3
01 Meat and meat preparations1490.0-0.3
02 Dairy products and birds' eggs4410.0-0.6
03 Fish, crustac.,molluscs and prep. thereof53 605-0.1-0.2
04 Cereals and cereal preparations2340.0-0.2
05 Vegetables and fruit115-0.2-0.3
06 Sugars, sugar prepatations and honey320.00.0
07 Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices232-0.1-0.3
08 Feeding stuff for animals (not cereals)1 695-1.1-1.3
09 Miscellaneous edible products9210.00.0
 
1 Beverages and tobacco549-0.3-0.4
11 Beverages542-0.3-0.4
12 Tobacco and tobacco manufactures80.00.0
 
2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels10 3440.0-0.2
21 Hides, skins and furskins, raw3180.20.4
22 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits40.00.0
23 Crude rubber250.0-0.5
24 Wood, lumber and cork2 2470.0-0.4
25 Pulp and waste paper1 6720.00.0
26 Textile fibres and their waste153-0.2-0.3
27 Crude fertilizers and crude minerales2 460-0.1-0.1
28 Metalliferous ores and metal scrap3 1870.0-0.1
29 Crude animal and vegetable materials2780.0-0.6
 
3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials340 8080.0-0.4
32 Coal, coke and briquettes20.00.0
33 Petroleum, petroleum products184 8150.00.0
334 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude); preparations, n.e.s., containing by weight 70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparation32 2540.0-0.1
34 Gas , natural and manufactured152 3150.0-0.8
342 Liquefied propane and butane10 6580.00.5
35 Electric current3 6760.00.0
 
4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes1 330-1.0-2.0
41 Animal oils and fats694-0.10.4
42 Fixed vegetable fats and oils, crude, refined or fractionated258-4.6-4.3
43 Animal or vegetable fats and oils, processed3780.0-4.8
 
5 Chemicals and related products n.e.s.34 4120.0-0.1
51 Organic chemicals9 3640.00.2
52 Inorganic chemicals5 1800.10.2
53 Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials1 2130.1-0.3
54 Medicinal and pharmaceutical products4 4860.0-0.9
55 Essential oils and resinoids etc870-0.1-0.4
56 Fertilizers2:::
57 Plastics in primary forms3 498-0.2-0.2
58 Plastics in non-primary forms9020.0-0.2
59 Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.8 898-0.1-0.1
 
6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material47 2970.0-0.2
61 Leather, leather manufactures, furskins440.0-12.3
62 Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.3880.0-0.2
63 Cork and wood manufactures9690.0-0.2
64 Paper, paperboard and manufact. thereof3 1970.00.0
65 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles9310.0-0.5
66 Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.8970.00.0
67 Iron and steel8 3350.0-0.6
68 Non-ferrous metals27 8990.0-0.1
69 Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.4 6370.0-0.1
 
7 Machinery and transport equipment48 706-0.11.7
71 Power generating machinery and equipment4 760-0.4-4.1
72 Machinery for special industries6 945-0.10.0
73 Metal working machinery3180.0-0.9
74 General industrial machinery and equipment8 7440.10.1
75 Office machines, data processing machines1 467-0.9-1.0
76 Telecommunications apparatus and equipment.3 6650.40.3
77 Electrical machinery and apparatus8 7780.0-0.4
78 Road vehicles4 609-0.3-0.6
79 Other transport equipment including ships9 4200.013.1
 
8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles13 293-0.1-0.9
81 Prefabricated buildings.8470.0-4.1
82 Furniture and parts thereof1 5630.0-0.2
83 Travel goods, handbags etc.680.00.0
84 Articles of apparel and accessories448-0.9-1.1
85 Footwear860.0-0.6
87 Professional and scientific instruments5 355-0.1-0.4
88 Photographic and optical goods1360.0-0.1
89 Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s4 7890.0-1.0
 
9 Commodities and transactions4900.00.0
91 Postal packages not classified according to kind00.00.0
93 Special transactions and commodities not classified according to kind100.00.0
96 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender10.00.0
97 Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold, ores and concentrates)4790.00.0

About the statistics

The external trade statistics comprise the development in Norway's trade with other countries in terms of value and volume figures. Aggregated as well as detailed imports and exports figures between Norway and partner countries, trade regions and continents are provided.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Imports and exports
Imports comprise mainly foreign manufactured goods entering Norway. This can also include re-importation of originally Norwegian-produced goods and processed goods. Exports comprise domestically produced goods sent out of Norway, i.e. the Norwegian statistical territory as defined in Section of population. Also included are reexportation of originally foreign-produced goods and processed goods.

Trade in goods is based on the physical movement of goods across borders, but for some items, such as ships, oil platforms and aircraft, trading often takes place without the occurrence of such movement. Whether there has been an import or export of such goods is therefore determined based on whether a change in economic ownership has taken place cf. also described in the Section of population. Economic ownership is defined as the person entitled to claim the economic benefit and who has the legal responsibility for the risk of the item.

Mainland exports
As from March 2013, the statistics on external trade in goods will use the term mainland exports on the exportation of goods other than crude oil, natural gas, natural gas condensates, ships and oil platforms. Previously, we also used the term traditional goods for these exports, as well as for imports excluding ships and oil platforms. (Balance of payments and the research department still use the term traditional goods. The balance of payments also includes items such as naphtha, propane and butane in its collective term crude oil and natural gas, external trade in goods does not.)

Goods

A good is a physical object. Trade in goods, both relate to and are bound by trade in services. Services are more intangible by nature than goods. Production and consumption of goods is often independent of each other, while a service is difficult to distinguish in the same manner. Sometimes it is difficult to determine whether an object is a commodity or a service, e.g. software. Software may be defined as a service even if it is stored in a physical product and production and consumption take place independently. The content, i.e. the developed software, is mostly a service.

Country
Country of origin is used for imports. With regard to exports, the country of destination is used.

For raw materials, the country of origin is determined according to where the goods are produced. For manufactured goods (processed and refined goods), this is the country in which the goods have obtained the form they have at the time of import. The country of destination is defined as the country, which, on the date of export, is the last known country for which the goods are intended.

For more specific principles in relation to country of origin, the rule for ships, aircraft and oil platforms is that country of origin is the country that previously owned the goods (economic ownership). For Norwegian-produced goods sold abroad and subsequently bought in Norway, the country from which the goods are imported shall be given as the country of origin (manufacturing country).

Mode of transport
Mode of transport is defined as the means of transportation used when goods cross the border, either by import or export (in the Database for Standard Classifications there is a detailed description of mode of transport ).

Quantity
For most goods, the quantity is expressed in kilograms (weight excluding packaging), except for ships and electricity, which are measured by gross tonnes and kWh respectively. However, for many goods, the quantity is also available in a different unit of measurement, such as pieces, barrels, cubic metres, carat, litres, pairs etc.

Statistical value
Statistical value is the value when crossing the Norwegian border. Duties, VAT and other taxes are not included in the statistical value.

Upon import, the value should be set to the CIF (Cost Insurance Freight) value, i.e. the value of the goods at the Norwegian border, including the costs associated with the delivery of goods to the border, transport costs and insurance. Similarly, for exports it is the value at the Norwegian border, including the costs associated with transporting it there, called FOB (Free On Board) value. CIF and FOB are two types of delivery terms called Incoterms. The delivery terms are an agreement between buyer and seller as to who bears the risk, responsibility and cost of transportation of the goods to the agreed place. In the Database for Standard Classifications there is an overview of the different delivery terms .

For crude oil exported by ship directly from installations on the Norwegian continental shelf, the value upon departure from the installation is used. In the case of crude oil and natural gas that is piped abroad, this value is determined based onon when it leaves the Norwegian continental shelf. The value of transport in international waters and into a terminal abroad is regarded as export of services.

The statistical value of exports and imports of ships is the transfer value including takeover of debt. With regard toto fish landed abroad (exported) by Norwegian vessels and caught outside the Norwegian customs border, the statistical value is the value of the fish paid to the fishing operator upon the sale of stock (minus the sales organisation fee).

County of production
The county of production is defined as the county in which the added value is greatest.

Standard classifications

Classification of goods
The classification by HS (the international customs and statistics nomenclature, the Harmonized System) is a 6-digit grouping of goods organised primarily according to the material characteristics of goods at the time of crossing the border. Only in exceptional cases is the later use of the goods of any significance to the classification. The WCO (World Customs Organization) is responsible for this nomenclature.

The Norwegian customs tariff is based on the HS, but has two more digits, which are national codes. The 7th digit reflects national customs divisions/tariff rates (bound in the WTO - World Trade Organization). The 8th digit is used to cover the national statistical needs and and among others the interests of the Norwegian Agricultural Authority and Ministry of Foreign Affairs interests with regard to import and export regulations. In some cases, the 8th digit is also used to distinguish between goods subject to duties and/or fees. The Norwegian version is published annually on our website along with a text version of the nomenclature developed by Statistics Norway. The detailed commodity list , which includes all commodity numbers, also provides information about the validity of each commodity number.

Due to technological developments and changes in international trade, the HS nomenclature is normally updated every 5 years – with the most recent implementation on 1 January 2012. In addition, minor changes are made in the Norwegian customs tariff every year. The EU also uses the nomenclature of the HS in its publication of foreign trade figures. However, the EU version; the Combined Nomenclature (CN) - which also has eight digits - is more detailed than the Norwegian version. As mentioned previously, only the first 6 digits are common internationally.

When publishing external trade figures, the UN Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) is mainly used. Here the goods are grouped by level of processing (raw materials, semi-finished and finished goods). As from 1988 to 2006, the SITC-Rev.3 is used, but as of 2007 the SITC-Rev. 4 is used.

The classification BEC (Broad Economic Categories); the UN classification of commodities by end use, which is based on the SITC, is also used to some extent. This classification is not considered to be a "standard classification" in the same way as for example the SITC, and it is officially acknowledged that countries may have their own version of this grouping in order to satisfy national needs. In the Database for Standard Classifications the Norwegian version of this classification is found.

The various nomenclatures are listed on the UN’s website , as well as correspondence tables between the different nomenclatures HS, SITC and BEC and their different versions.

The product classification CPA divides goods by industry group, and in external trade we use extracts from this. CPA (Statistical Classification of Productivity by Activity in the European Community) is the EU's central Product by Activity classification. It is a product group that is closely linked to industry, i.e. distinctive products within each activity can be linked to the activity classification NACE Rev.2.

Grouping by country
The Norwegian list of countries used follows the international standard ISO-3166. EU countries use the same standard, except for some deviations of less importance.

In the external trade publications these country groupings are frequently used:

Nordic countries - trade with Sweden, Denmark, Greenland, Faroe Islands, Finland, Åland and Iceland
EFTA - trade with Iceland, Switzerland and Liechtenstein
EU – in the Database for standard classifications current member states at any given time is available
OECD - for current member states at any given time see the OECD's website

Developing countries – as from 2007, the figures are according to the OECD’s DAC (DAC stands for Development Assistance Committee) for definitions of countries at any given time that are recognised as recipients of official foreign aid. The DAC list also includes a section on LDCs (Least Developed Countries - defined by the UN) - which we also use in the statistics.
(Until 2006, these countries were defined as developing countries in the Norwegian trade statistics: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), Croatia, Macedonia, Malta, Slovenia - Africa except South Africa - Asia excluding Japan, North and South America except USA, Canada and Greenland - Oceania except Australia and New Zealand.)

Former Comecon (only European Comecon countries in the Norwegian trade statistics): Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Estonia, Georgia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Hungary, Uzbekistan.

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: External trade in goods
Topic: External economy

Next release

Responsible division

Division for External Trade Statistics

Regional level

Statistics on imports and exports of goods are published at country level. Export figures are also given by county of production.

Frequency and timeliness

Monthly figures are released on the 15th of the month after the observation period (the previous month), or the first subsequent working day. These figures are preliminary. With regard to the current year, all the monthly figures are updated in every publication

Corresponding yearly figures are published together with the monthly figures for December. With regard to the current year, all the monthly figures are updated in every publication. Final figures for the preceding year are released twice. For the first time in May the following year, while the corrected final figures are published in May one year later.

International reporting

Reports are sent to the EU statistical office (Eurostat), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the United Nations (UN).

Microdata

Non-revised and revised micro data are stored in accordance with Statistics Norway's guidelines for storing computer files (DataDok).

Background

Background and purpose

The purpose of the external trade statistics is to provide information about the commodity flows between Norway and other countries. Exports and imports are important economic indicators both in describing structural changes and in monitoring the economic trends. The monthly statistics of external trade in goods have been published since 1913 (value figures were published for the first time in 1866).

With regard to essential changes in the statistics, the commodity classification in line with the Harmonised System that was introduced in 1988 entailed a comprehensive restructuring of the distribution at a detailed level in relation to the earlier CCCN nomenclature (the Customs Cooperation Council Nomenclature).

The statistics are mainly financed from State assignments, but also rely to some extent on market income.

Users and applications

The external trade statistics are a part of the national and international statistical system, and are used in the compilation of the national accounts and the balance of payment statistics in Statistics Norway. The statistics are aimed at covering the business sector’s need for data in this area for their planning of production, marketing and sales.

The statistics are also intended for prognoses and analyses performed by public authorities, research institutions and private organisations. International organisations such as the UN´s statistical office, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD),  the statistical office of the EU (Eurostat) and others make use of the information provided in the external trade statistics.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

The figures for external trade statistics are an important part of the quarterly balance of payments and national accounts and the annual national accounts .

Operational accounts (balance of payments comprises operating accounts and capital accounts), however, include several items on both the export and import side that are not included in the statistics on external trade. This applies to the export and import of services in their entirety. External trade statistics only cover the non-financial sector, while the balance of payments cover all institutional sectors (the non-financial sector produces goods and non-financial services, while financial firms are mainly concerned with financial disclosure and financial assistance services).

The balance of payments also collects estimates of trade in goods which are transported directly from abroad to the Norwegian continental shelf, imports of fuel and other oil products to Norwegian ships, aircraft and units abroad. Moreover the external account interprets some of the goods from the external trade statistics in goods as a service, such as computer games, software and licenses.

In the publication of the figures for external trade we give figures for crude oil, natural gas and condensates, while the balance of payments use the collective term “crude oil and natural gas”. Terms in foreign accounts also encompass items such as naphtha, propane and butane, while the external trade statistics do not.

In addition to the statistics mentioned, external trade figures are included in many of the other statistics published by Statistics Norway, for example:

- Exports of salmon ,  weekly figures of salmon exports are published in addition to the regular monthly trade figures
- Indices of volume and price of external trade in goods mainly use external trade data as the basis for calculating figures. In addition, the total number of imports and exports, as well as fish and some selected commodity numbers for waste paper and scrap metal, are used as basic data in the producer price index  and the  price index of first-hand domestic sales
- External trade data are also used as basic data for statistics on transport  , the external trade in ICT goodsstatistics on fishery and emissions of greenhouse gases

 

Mirror statistics
Mirror statistics, in the context of external trade statistics, refer to a comparison between the statistics of two or more countries: exports of goods from one country should in principle equal the imports of the same goods in the partner country.

However, discrepancies are often identified in these figures for several reasons. Although there are international guidelines for the production of external trade statistics, there may still be differences in what the countries include. An example is differences in the usage of statistical trade systems, general or special trade, which causes delimitations to the statistics content. Countries may also have different methods for data collecting and processing, which can create distortions. Furthermore, some countries collect data from customs authorities and others directly from companies. 

Basically, there should be a certain difference in value between the countries, as the exporting country provides the FOB-value while the importing country in addition to this adds costs for insurance and freight all the way to the location of delivery, the CIF-value (see Definitions). Some countries collect data from customs authorities, others directly from companies. A common source of error between countries is caused by different information about which is the country of destination. Different threshold-values for inclusion of data can also create distortions, f.ex. in Norwegian external trade statistics, declarations with value less than NOK 1 000 are excluded from the import statistics. Other countries may have other delimitations. Different practise of confidentiality and demands for confidentiality, inaccurate definitions of certain commodities as well as conscious and unconscious misuse of codes can lead to use of different classification codes between countries.

From a Norwegian point of view, there is a need for comparing external trade data with the corresponding statistics of our main trading partners, principally European countries. It is in this context important to have knowledge of the rules practiced by the individual partners.

The Statistical Office of the European Union, Eurostat, publishes external trade data for EU countries, totally for the Union and separate for each member country. This statistics are produced according to EU regulations, which defines external trade as trade between the European Union trade and third countries. As a consequence of this, exports to countries in the EU from a non EU-member state are recorded as imported to EU in the first country where the goods cross the borders of the European Union. When forwarding the goods to the country of destination, the good is recorded as an item dispatched from the EU-country that first received the goods. Information about the country of origin of the commodity is not included in the records. Several of the EU-countries publishes in addition to the data presented in the Eurostat database, Comext ,  separately external trade statistics produced after national methodology. For information about this, consult Eurostat's annual report: Quality report on International trade statistics .

 

Legal authority

The Statistics Act §§ 2-1, 2-2 and 3-2

EEA reference

EU regulations incorporated into the EEA agreement comprise contractual obligations pursuant toto EC regulations onon data collection and distribution of data to the EU’s statistical office, Eurostat. The current regulations are as follows:

Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries and repealing of Council Regulation (EC) No 1172/95

Commission Regulation (EU) No. 92/2010 of 2 February 2010 implementing Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries, as regards data exchange between customs authorities and national statistical authorities, compilation of statistics and quality assessment

Commission Regulation (EU) No. 113/2010 of 9 February 2010 implementing Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries, as regards trade coverage, definition of the data, compilation of statistics on trade by business characteristics and by invoicing currency, and specific goods or movements

Commission Regulation (EU) No. 1106/2012 of 27 November 2012 implementing Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries, as regards the update of the nomenclature of countries and territories

Production

Population

Statistics area and the economic territory
The scope of foreign trade statistics is based on international guidelines from the United Nations Statistical Commission.

The general recommendation is that the statistics should include all goods which add to or subtract from the stock of material resources of a country by entering (imports) or leaving (exports) its economic territory. In addition to the geographical dimension, a country's economic territory also includes ships, aircraft and oil platforms owned by national corporations. These are goods that are not necessarily located within the geographic area, but are still viewed as part of the material resources of a country. For these goods external trade is measured by the change of economic ownership.

There are two different statistical trade systems - the general trade system and the special trade system. UN recommends using the general trade system where a country's statistical area coincides with its economic territory. This implies that goods are recorded at the time they enter or leave the economic territory. The special trade system is used when the statistical area covers only a part of the economic territory. Statistics Norway follows, with a few exceptions, the general trade system.

The Norwegian economic territory consists of mainland Norway, Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Norwegian dependencies, territorial waters, including the airspace above these, the economic zone, the Norwegian part of the continental shelf, territorial enclaves abroad (embassies, consulates, military bases, research stations) and Norwegian ships, aircraft and oil platforms.

External trade statistics is mainly based on information drawn from customs declarations. However, the responsible area of the customs authorities only covers mainland Norway and its territorial waters. As a supplement, data on important trade in goods to and from the remaining areas of the economic territory are collected directly from respondents and registers.

The following are defined as statistical area:

Mainland Norway and its territorial waters
Customs declarations contain information on physical flows of goods crossing the customs border. Imports and export that are exempted from ordinary declaration are referred to in the Customs Act §§ 4-10 and 4-11. According to the recommendations from the UN, some flows of goods should be excluded from the statistics. This includes trade in Norwegian goods between the customs area and other parts of the Norwegian economic territory. To the extent possible, trade in foreign goods to and from foreign enclaves, ships, aircraft and oil platforms located in Norway are omitted. To distinguish this type of transactions customs procedure codes from the declarations are used. In general, trade transactions are recorded at the time when the goods enter or leave the customs territory. However there are some exceptions, cf. the treatment of goods in customs warehouses.

There are four different types of customs warehouses. Goods waiting on declearance,can be stored in either a general or a central warehouse. For imports the time of recording is set when the goods are taken out of the warehouse and not when they arrived in the economic territory. This means that the statistical processing of these data follows the special trade principle. However, in practice the time difference between storage and withdrawals from warehouses is usually so small that the statistical processing is considered to be approximately equal to the general trade principle. For the remaining two types of customs warehouse; duty free and storage for further processing, the statistical treatment is according to the general trade system.

Customs declarations of exports and imports of electric current do not provide enough information for statistical purposes, and data is therefore obtained directly from the respondent.

Svalbard and Jan Mayen
Import transported through the Norwegian mainland to Svalbard and Jan Mayen should be declared by customs. Data on exports of coal transported directly from Svalbard are collected directly from the respondents.

The Norwegian part of the continental shelf
Imports via the Norwegian mainland to Norwegian owned installations and vessels that operate on the continental shelf should be declared by customs. Exports of crude oil and natural gas delivered directly from the continental shelf are based on data from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate and the different operators.

Norwegian owned ships, aircraft and oil platforms
Exports and imports of ships, aircraft and oil platforms are based on information from Norwegian ship registers as well as from different respondents. Export of Norwegian goods (excluding bunkers) to foreign ships and aircraft in Norwegian ports and airports are covered by customs declarations.

Data on exports of fish caught by Norwegian fishing vessels outside the customs area and landed abroad is obtained from the Directorate of Fisheries.

 

In accordance with the UN recommendations the following trade in goods are not included in the statistics:

  • Goods in transit, ie goods attending the Norwegian economic territory to be directly transported to a recipient outside this area
  •  Goods traded through intermediate trade, ie goods transported between two foreign countries without entering the Norwegian economic territory
  • Goods physically crossing the country border, but defined as a service (including newspaper subscriptions, accompanied baggage, household goods)
  • Content delivered electronically (including e-books, downloadable games, etc.), defined purely as a service
  • Issued banknotes, securities and monetary gold
  • Samples, gifts and promotional material etc. with a low value
  •  Goods for repair or return after repair
  •  Goods in unaltered condition in return to vendor (claims etc.) and waste containers, replacement deliveries and free repairs (warranty)
  •  Items for temporary use, that are returned within 12 months (exhibition, demonstration, scientific research, loan, professional equipment, transport vehicles in international traffic, containers, equipment in use for the press, radio and television equipment, etc.)
  •  Change in ownership of non-financial assets
  •  Goods that are damaged on the journey to and from the Norwegian economic territory
  •  Satellites equipment moved to and launched in other countries without any change of ownership
  •  Goods functioning as means of transport (ship, aircraft, packaging, etc.)
  • Waste and scrap without any commercial value

 Furthermore goods totalling less than NOK 1 000 are omitted, these goods amounts to less than one per cent of the import and about 0.04 per cent of the export. Imports of goods for less than NOK 200 and exports of goods less than NOK 5.000 (except from goods that are subject to taxes and restrictions) are not subject to declaration by the Customs.

Data sources and sampling

The statistics are mainly based on administrative information obtained from TVINN, which is the Norwegian Customs’ electronic information system for the exchange of customs declarations between businesses and Norwegian Customs. Some data is, however, obtained from other sources, and more information on this can be found in the paragraph on data collection.

Sampling is not not relevant as external trade is a total count of the goods defined in the population.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Data collection

The vast majority of the data is, as mentioned, collected through the Customs’ TVINN register and transmitted electronically to Statistics Norway. However, some additional data, as shown below, is obtained separately.

Exports of crude oil and natural gas in gaseous state
Preliminary and final figures for exported volumes of crude oil and natural gas in gaseous state are collected through monthly reports from the operators and the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The prices, however, are obtained via various sources depending on whether they relate to crude oil or natural gas, and whether the data is being collected to compile preliminary or final figures.

From 2013 on, the development in the in gas prices from the producer price index (PPI) used to calculate the preliminary gas prices for foreign trade, while the level will be based on the value determined from the last registered price. PPI obtain figures for natural gas from the journal World Gas Intelligence (WGI).

Preliminary oil prices are still based on data from the operators.

For crude oil, the final prices: quarterly surveys from the licensees, as well as information from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy and the operators.

For natural gas, final prices: a quarterly average price based on information from a selection of licensees and operators.

Due to insufficient information about country of destination there are from 2013 on changes in the dissemination of the figures of exports of natural gas in gaseous state. From 2013, country of destination according to these figures will be based on the landing point of the pipelines with natural gas from the Norwegian continental shelf.

Imports and exports of ships and oil platforms
The data collection for vessels is based on current information from the Norwegian ship registers the Norwegian Ordinary Ship Register (NOR) and the Norwegian International Ship Register (NIS).

When it comes to oil platforms, information is collected from the Norwegian ship registers, the Customs’ TVINN register and importer/exporter.

Imports and exports of electricity
From 2016 information is collected from Customs' TVINN register. In previous years this information was received from the Nordic Power Exchange Nord Pool.

Imports and exports of aircraft
For some aircrafts, monthly reports are received from Statistics Sweden, while the rest are obtained through regular declarations in the TVINN system.

Exports of coal from Svalbard
Reports on the export of coal from Svalbard are received monthly from the exporter. 

Exports of fish caught by Norwegian vessels outside the Norwegian customs border
Since July 2010, the figures have been obtained from the Directorate of Fisheries (FDIR). Prior to that, the information was gathered through TVINN.

 

Data editing

Information from customs declarations is subject to statistical controls in the Customs declaration system (TVINN). The controls to check the estimated price, quantity and country were developed by the Customs in cooperation with Statistics Norway.

Data controls at Statistics Norway take place at different levels - some as soon as the data is loaded into the system (automatic recoding of variables). The manual part of the revision consists of different types of validity and probability tests. The former are controls of absolute errors, such as missing transport code, while the other type of test may check unlikely country codes or unreasonably high quantities for a specific type of good. The system aims to intercept the most serious errors in the data. Data collected from sources other than the Customs also undergo similar checks.

 

Estimations

External trade is based on a total count but some items are excluded, cf. section of population. There is no need for any statistical estimations of current figures, only aggregations, in order to enable us to publish in a timely manner.

 

Seasonal adjustment

 The seasonal adjustment method, which is used for the foreign trade monthly value series and the quarterly volume series, consists of pre-treatment of the values for the individual series using the seasonal adjustment programme X12-ARIMA. It was developed by the US Bureau of the Census, and is one of the most internationally known methods for seasonal adjustment. The purpose of the seasonally-adjusted figures is to show the real economic trends by eliminating interference caused by seasonal variations. There are two important corrections: one method adjusts for the number of weekdays of different kinds in each month. This can be important, since it is probable that exports and imports are distributed unevenly throughout the week. The second important correction is for the Easter holidays, since Easter can fall in different months and different quarters of the year. We assume that both imports and exports are affected the week before Easter, in the Easter week itself and the week after Easter. No special corrections are made for other holidays in the year.

Confidentiality

The Statistics Act § 2-6 covers the disclosure of information. The requirements for confidentiality in external trade of goods are practised so that data is suppressed only when the establishment/enterprise has a valid reason for confidential treatment and actively asks for it. This is called "passive confidentiality" and is in line with UN recommendations. This method is used by most countries. Exporters/importers can demand suppression when there are 3 or fewer companies that import or export an item type, or when a company has a market share of over 90 per cent, or if two firms have a market share of over 95 per cent.

Since Norway has a number of major manufacturers that are dominant in some product areas, some suppression of information exists on the export side. Between 5 and 10 per cent of mainland exports are affected by confidentiality. For imports, it is far less; around 1 per cent. Some commodity areas are more problematic with regard to dissemination, since suppression on highly aggregated levels must be carried out.

Comparability over time and space

The six-digit HS-based commodity classification is subject to revisions due to technological development and also development in the commodity spectres of the international trade. These adjustments are normally made every five years. The most recent HS revision was implemented on 1 January 2012. Furthermore, national adjustments are made every year at the national eight-digit level. These revisions can create breaks in the time series for some commodity numbers. Detailed information about this is available in the yearly Commodity List External Trade. Correspondence tables between the different editions of the HS are available on the UN website .

With regard to the divisions according to the SITC, the current SITC-Rev.4 was introduced in January 2007, when it replaced the previous SITC-Rev.3 (1988-2006). The relation between the figures for the years before and after 2007 can be misleading for some commodity numbers. The degree of influence depends on the value of the commodity numbers that now have a different group affiliation. Correspondence tables between the different editions of the SITC are also available on the UN website .

For the tables that use the CPA nomenclature, the 2008 edition is used for the whole series.

Other elements influencing the comparability over time: The imports and exports of ships and oil platforms in the statistics were extended in 1991 to include transactions that concern vessels under a foreign flag with a Norwegian-registered holding company. Furthermore, the definition of developing countries was changed in 2007, which affects the figures slightly.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

Collection errors can occur from incorrect values, incomplete information or misinterpretation of data on customs declarations. Examples of this are use of wrong commodity number, country code, county of production or incorrect quantity.

Other sources of error include late updates, which sometimes occur for the trade with ships and oil platforms.It is also difficult to intercept the transit trade, i.e. the buying and selling of commodities in foreign territory where a Norwegian company is one of the partners. Neither do we have a good data basis to estimate the processing exports for the preparation of goods abroad or imports for processing in Norway.
The rules for customs clearance, which entail exemption from the duty to declare for exports of goods when the value is below NOK 5 000 and exemption for imports of goods when the value is below NOK 200, lead to lower figures than the real trade. This is not the best solution for preparation of the national accounts, where these lacking figures are estimated separately.
The calculation of seasonally-adjusted data beyond the usual seasonal effects is adjusted for the fact that trade is distributed unevenly across the week and taking into account the effect of Easter, as described in the section of estimations. However, beyond this nothing in particular is done. Therefore it would be natural to assume that the seasonally-adjusted December figures should be interpreted more cautiously because of the Christmas holidays.

The export trade statistics is a full count, so there are therefore no non-response errors or sampling errors .

Revision

External trade in goods publishes preliminary figures monthly. However, further revisions of the figures continue until April/May the next year, when the final figures are published. Corrections in data mean that the monthly figures can be changed until publication of the final figures. The difference between the preliminary release of monthly statistics and the final figures is usually small for mainland exports, typically below one per cent. At the detailed level and for individual months, revisions can have greater significance, in relative terms. Oil and gas figures can undergo major revisions, particularly in relation to oil and gas prices. As stated in the section for frequency and timeliness, we make some adjustments in the final figures. These adjustments will normally be of lesser importance, but sometimes relatively large defects or errors are revealed.