443685
/en/jord-skog-jakt-og-fiskeri/statistikker/binfo/aar
443685
statistikk
2021-03-18T08:00:00.000Z
Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing;Income and consumption
en
binfo, Farmers’ income and debt, agricultural income, income from self-employment, farmersIncome and wealth, Agriculture , Income and consumption, Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing
true

Farmers’ income and debt

Updated

Next update

Not yet determined

Key figures

201 300

NOK average entrepreneurial income from agriculture for farmers

Farmers’ income and debt
2019Change in per cent
2018 - 20192014 - 2019
Personal holders (number)36 846-1.6-9.2
 
Average income for holders (NOK)711 2003.318.1
Wages and salaries298 8004.517.0
Entrepreneurial income from agriculture201 3000.715.9
Other entrepreneurial income84 0002.317.3
Pensions63 8006.232.6
Capital income etc.63 3005.019.0
 
Average debt for holders (NOK)2 205 0002.016.9

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Entrepreneurial income from agriculture for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder

Entrepreneurial income from agriculture for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder
Entrepreneurial income from agricultureHolders by entrepreneurial income from agriculture
TotalPer holderHolders, totalWithout positive income1 - 49 999 NOK50 000 - 99 999 NOK100 000 - 249 999 NOK250 000 - 399 999 NOK400 000 and more
NOK millionNOKNumberPer cent
20177 629200 60038 037311213151118
20187 483199 90037 443321212151118
20197 419201 30036 846321113151118
 
2019
County
Østfold (-2019)494246 1002 00624917181220
Oslo and Akershus (-2019)441234 4001 881291116171017
Hedmark (-2019)664230 6002 881321012141221
Oppland (-2019)749184 8004 051321014151316
Buskerud (-2019)322161 5001 994351315151111
Vestfold (-2019)308251 8001 224291115151020
Telemark (-2019)145112 9001 2844416131369
Aust-Agder (-2019)96147 70064840141512514
Vest-Agder (-2019)133128 2001 03445131112911
Rogaland873229 3003 805261113161320
Hordaland (-2019)343117 1002 9294415121389
Sogn og Fjordane (-2019)459172 6002 659281314171314
Møre og Romsdal423188 9002 241371111131118
Trøndelag - Trööndelage1 285241 0005 33227913151324
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)000000000
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)000000000
Nordland460251 8001 827261010161126
Troms - Romsa (-2019)170213 800795281110181222
Finnmark - Finnmárku (-2019)55214 7002553611713925
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds861136 5006 3093214201788
Other field crops526147 3003 57043151212711
Horticulture and permanent crops401344 6001 16426910171126
Cattle - dairying2 144399 5005 367735152546
Cattle - rearing and fattening636159 0003 99835915191111
Cattle - mixed394441 700891625112452
Sheep80185 9009 3224217161564
Various grazing livestock292120 7002 42249111111810
Granivores759425 2001 7861657141643
Mixed cropping85450 1001882510913936
Mixed livestock212412 6005142045121643
Mixed crops - livestock309234 6001 315331113141019
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares261230 5001 13335131112920
5 - 49 decares23162 6003 69259179834
50 - 99 decares41066 4006 181531913934
100 - 199 decares1 193123 6009 6563414191798
200 - 299 decares1 293211 4006 11621816221617
300 - 499 decares1 874318 2005 88914510192033
500 decares or more2 156515 9004 1791025121853
 
Holders by sex
Males6 635214 80030 893301113151219
Females784131 6005 95339131415810

Table 2 
Average income for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder. NOK

Average income for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder. NOK
Total gross incomeWages and salariesEntrepreneurial income from agricultureOther entrepreneurial incomePensionsCapital income etc
2017661 800276 300200 60074 10057 10053 700
2018688 200285 900199 90082 10060 10060 300
2019711 200298 800201 30084 00063 80063 300
 
2019
County
Østfold (-2019)890 600335 500246 100126 40070 800111 800
Oslo and Akershus (-2019)961 300362 900234 400140 10082 000141 800
Hedmark (-2019)733 700269 600230 600107 30064 80061 300
Oppland (-2019)654 700268 700184 80095 00052 60053 600
Buskerud (-2019)806 300326 100161 500134 90066 500117 300
Vestfold (-2019)901 900349 500251 800112 10072 600115 900
Telemark (-2019)682 100362 500112 90088 90078 30039 500
Aust-Agder (-2019)652 000288 300147 70097 20073 40045 300
Vest-Agder (-2019)632 400322 400128 20077 20065 10039 400
Rogaland728 100291 100229 30069 20058 50080 000
Hordaland (-2019)660 500373 100117 10056 20074 20039 900
Sogn og Fjordane (-2019)624 100281 100172 60046 90070 40053 200
Møre og Romsdal642 000290 300188 90065 90064 60032 300
Trøndelag - Trööndelage688 000285 500241 00067 80048 00045 700
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)000000
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)000000
Nordland613 600210 700251 80053 00066 70031 500
Troms - Romsa (-2019)558 000205 600213 80055 40066 90016 200
Finnmark - Finnmárku (-2019)564 000214 000214 70064 50057 00013 900
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds852 300418 000136 500114 00090 50093 300
Other field crops756 200350 200147 30092 50087 20079 000
Horticulture and permanent crops892 800286 300344 60081 00079 300101 600
Cattle - dairying621 600106 700399 50058 20023 80033 400
Cattle - rearing and fattening683 400301 200159 00097 40049 60076 200
Cattle - mixed669 80092 100441 70080 60022 20033 200
Sheep615 100346 00085 90064 90077 10041 200
Various grazing livestock670 800328 300120 70088 90062 20070 800
Granivores851 100224 100425 20082 80029 00090 000
Mixed cropping920 200243 600450 10079 20071 50075 800
Mixed livestock761 200190 400412 60093 50022 40042 400
Mixed crops - livestock745 700277 400234 600110 30063 60059 900
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares708 800284 300230 50062 80074 90056 400
5 - 49 decares646 100375 60062 60056 100102 90048 800
50 - 99 decares655 600375 30066 40065 90092 80055 200
100 - 199 decares663 100338 100123 60075 00072 20054 200
200 - 299 decares681 800275 300211 40089 30049 40056 300
300 - 499 decares727 700222 200318 20088 80034 10064 300
500 decares or more982 700173 000515 900147 10026 700120 000
 
Holders by sex
Males739 300296 800214 80090 70067 50069 600
Females565 200309 000131 60049 10044 50031 000

Table 3 
Holders by entrepreneurial income from agriculture as per cent of gross income, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder

Holders by entrepreneurial income from agriculture as per cent of gross income, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder
Holders, totalShare of holders by entrepreneurial income from agriculture as per cent of gross income
0 per cent1-9 per cent10-49 per cent50-89 per cent90 per cent or more
201738 0373114271513
201837 4433215271512
201936 8463115271512
 
2019
County
Østfold (-2019)2 006241737148
Oslo and Akershus (-2019)1 881291934135
Hedmark (-2019)2 8813213261811
Oppland (-2019)4 0513113281612
Buskerud (-2019)1 994351830126
Vestfold (-2019)1 224291831148
Telemark (-2019)1 28444192395
Aust-Agder (-2019)648391625137
Vest-Agder (-2019)1 034441522108
Rogaland3 8052614281616
Hordaland (-2019)2 92944172297
Sogn og Fjordane (-2019)2 6592815311610
Møre og Romsdal2 2413613221514
Trøndelag - Trööndelage5 3322613271816
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)000000
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)000000
Nordland1 8272611241721
Troms - Romsa (-2019)7952810261421
Finnmark - Finnmárku (-2019)2553511162018
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds6 30932243672
Other field crops3 570421826105
Horticulture and permanent crops1 1642612301912
Cattle - dairying5 36773193437
Cattle - rearing and fattening3 998351232138
Cattle - mixed89162193439
Sheep9 32242192874
Various grazing livestock2 422481321117
Granivores1 786157262823
Mixed cropping1882310232519
Mixed livestock514206182730
Mixed crops - livestock1 3153313271710
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares1 1333414251512
5 - 49 decares3 69259181743
50 - 99 decares6 18152212042
100 - 199 decares9 656341931107
200 - 299 decares6 1162113351815
300 - 499 decares5 889148312523
500 decares or more4 179104253328
 
Holders by sex
Males30 8933015271613
Females5 953391428117

Table 4 
Interest paid and debt for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder

Interest paid and debt for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder
Interest paid, total. NOK millionInterest paid per holder. NOKDebt, total. NOK millionDebt per holder. NOK
20172 55067 00082 3472 165 000
20182 65170 80080 9052 161 000
20193 00781 60081 2382 205 000
 
2019
County
Østfold (-2019)219109 1005 9152 948 000
Oslo and Akershus (-2019)16085 0004 6812 488 000
Hedmark (-2019)305106 0008 2352 858 000
Oppland (-2019)28369 8007 7121 904 000
Buskerud (-2019)12562 9003 7291 870 000
Vestfold (-2019)12198 8003 4292 801 000
Telemark (-2019)7558 4002 0491 596 000
Aust-Agder (-2019)4670 8001 2661 954 000
Vest-Agder (-2019)7774 1002 1812 109 000
Rogaland396104 00011 3442 981 000
Hordaland (-2019)14950 9004 2901 465 000
Sogn og Fjordane (-2019)12045 1003 4091 282 000
Møre og Romsdal15970 8004 0221 795 000
Trøndelag - Trööndelage536100 40013 4252 518 000
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)....
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)....
Nordland16691 0003 7762 066 000
Troms - Romsa (-2019)5467 7001 3181 658 000
Finnmark - Finnmárku (-2019)1768 2004581 796 000
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds39763 00011 1771 772 000
Other field crops20256 5005 5981 568 000
Horticulture and permanent crops9884 3002 7882 395 000
Cattle - dairying607113 10016 2623 030 000
Cattle - rearing and fattening37293 0009 6042 402 000
Cattle - mixed124139 0003 4123 829 000
Sheep43847 00011 5321 237 000
Various grazing livestock17572 2004 5131 863 000
Granivores342191 2009 1905 145 000
Mixed cropping21112 7006273 337 000
Mixed livestock111216 7003 1216 071 000
Mixed crops - livestock12091 0003 4162 598 000
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares11399 7003 2082 831 000
5 - 49 decares17948 6004 6361 256 000
50 - 99 decares28145 4007 5671 224 000
100 - 199 decares52154 00013 9871 449 000
200 - 299 decares44672 80011 8951 945 000
300 - 499 decares635107 80017 0292 892 000
500 decares or more832199 20022 9165 484 000
 
Holders by sex
Males2 64985 70071 2842 307 000
Females35860 1009 9541 672 000

Table 5 
Holders by size of debt, county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder

Holders by size of debt, county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder
Holders, totalHolders by size of debt
NOK 0-0.09 millionNOK 0.1-0.9 millionNOK 1-1.9 millionNOK 2-3.9 millionNOK 4 million or more
201738 0377 36310 0236 8827 5616 208
201837 4437 5589 5956 8157 3306 145
201936 8467 6899 1266 5537 1746 304
 
2019
County
Østfold (-2019)2 006317462311424492
Oslo and Akershus (-2019)1 881363444301394379
Hedmark (-2019)2 881426700483574698
Oppland (-2019)4 0518611 136773748533
Buskerud (-2019)1 994477511356388262
Vestfold (-2019)1 224219247203265290
Telemark (-2019)1 284301359238260126
Aust-Agder (-2019)648147155123117106
Vest-Agder (-2019)1 034246208182225173
Rogaland3 8057207195737861 007
Hordaland (-2019)2 929816765556549243
Sogn og Fjordane (-2019)2 659819785480385190
Møre og Romsdal2 241533586397449276
Trøndelag - Trööndelage5 3328621 2261 0201 0921 132
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)......
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)......
Nordland1 827360520340320287
Troms - Romsa (-2019)79517322816614583
Finnmark - Finnmárku (-2019)2554975515327
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds6 3091 5271 6431 1461 231762
Other field crops3 5701 005982632612339
Horticulture and permanent crops1 164257282195230200
Cattle - dairying5 3675901 3658331 0491 530
Cattle - rearing and fattening3 998675907786875755
Cattle - mixed89170193120183325
Sheep9 3222 7042 5721 8701 671505
Various grazing livestock2 422447600501577297
Granivores1 78670217150378971
Mixed cropping1882635393949
Mixed livestock51430506283289
Mixed crops - livestock1 315288280219246282
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares1 133238235161207292
5 - 49 decares3 6921 262938642624226
50 - 99 decares6 1812 0371 6971 141936370
100 - 199 decares9 6562 4392 7801 9301 740767
200 - 299 decares6 1161 0341 6871 2071 369819
300 - 499 decares5 8895311 3281 0661 4221 542
500 decares or more4 1791484614068762 288
 
Holders by sex
Males30 8935 9757 7145 4356 1615 608
Females5 9531 7141 4121 1181 013696

About the statistics

The statistics present figures for incomes and debt for persons who are operating agricultural holdings, independent of the holding as source of income. The amounts are derived from tax statistics for personal tax payers.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Agricultural holding

A single unit both technically and economically, which has single management and which produces agricultural products. The holding is independent of municipality boundaries. The agricultural holding's headquarter must be located to an agricultural property.



Holder

The person considered responsible for operating the holding.


Gross income

Total wages and salaries, pensions, entrepreneurial income and property income.


Wages and salaries

Comprise payments in cash and in kind, taxable sick pay and unemployment benefit.


Pensions

Cover all benefit paid by social security and private pension and life insurance benefit.


Entrepreneurial income

A result of the activities of a self-employed person, and is estimated from profit and loss account and balance sheet. The entrepreneurial income is transferred to the tax return and is included in the calculation of ordinary income.


Entrepreneurial income from agriculture

This is positive entrepreneurial income from agriculture according to the tax return. In addition, entrepreneurial social security benefits in agriculture, forestry and fishery are included. Deductions such as membership payments to industry organisations, the year's entrepreneurial deficit, interest on debt and a separate agricultural deduction are not deducted. Income from any supplementary industry executed on the holding, e.g. forestry, are included in other entrepreneurial income if the industry concerned are considered as independent according to taxation.


Capital income

Consist of interest income, dividends, realised capital gains, rent and other income from property.

Standard classifications

The following classifications are used in the tables: county where the holding is located, size of holding expressed in decares of utilised agricultural area, type of farming of the holding and sex of holder.

County
Oslo County is merged with Akershus County.





Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Farmers’ income and debt
Topic: Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing

Responsible division

Division for Housing, Property, Spatial and Agricultural Statistics

Regional level

County

Frequency and timeliness

Annual, about 55 weeks after the reference year

International reporting

Not relevant

Microdata

A data file with anonymous individual data is stored at Statistics Norway.

Background

Background and purpose

The purpose is to present statistics on incomes and debt for persons who are operating agricultural holdings, independent of the holding as source of income. An essential feature of the Norwegian agriculture is that many persons that are running agricultural holdings work part-time in agriculture or the work is concentrated to the growing season. Many holders have wage/salary or entrepreneurial income from other industries as main source of income.

Statistics Norway has produced statistics on the farmers' income, property and taxes based on the tax assessment for personal taxpayers since 1968. More detailed tax return data have been presented from 1999 and onwards.

Users and applications

There is much focus on level, distribution and development of incomes of holders in agriculture. The main users of the statistics are the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, the Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, the Agricultural Budget Commission, the Norwegian Farmers Union, the Norwegian Smallholders Union etc.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar.

Coherence with other statistics

Yearly, Statistics Norway also presents Income statistics for all self-employed persons . At first level the self-employed persons are classified into two groups: self-employed with main income from industry and self-employed with main income from wages/salaries and pensions. Furthermore, those with main income from industry are classified into primary industries and other industries. Primary industries consist of agriculture, forestry and fishery.

The The Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research yearly presents Account Results in Agriculture and Forestry. This survey shows results for holdings where most of the family's total income are derived from the holding. More information: http://www.nibio.no/.

Legal authority

Statistics Act §§2-1, 3-2

EEA reference

Not relevant

Production

Population

Agricultural holdings are operated by two main types of holders: natural person and legal person. The total number of holdings has been decreasing over many years, while during the last years the number of holdings operated by a legal person has increased. The percentage of holdings operated by a legal person has increased from 1 per cent in 1999 to 6 per cent in 2008. Later, the percentage has been almost unchanged. The statistics on the farmers' income and property cover only agricultural holdings operated by a natural person.

The holdings vary much in size, from hobby-like production to holdings with a turnover of more than NOK 1 million. Some of the holdings have small-scale production under the threshold to be considered an industry by the tax authorities.

The individual person who is considered as responsible for operating the holding is referred to as holder (farmer). Some holdings change holder during the year. Mainly, the holder being holder as per 31 July the year concerned is included. For the holders information has been obtained on any spouse, registered partner or cohabitant. Up to and including 2004, cohabitant included only he/she who had children in common with the holder. As from 2005, also cohabitant who lived together with holder according to the Population and Housing Census 2001 and still has common address is included.

Married couples and registered partners who jointly operate a holding may share the taxable entrepreneurial income. Cohabitants who want to share the entrepreneurial income from a jointly operated holding have to organise the management as a legal entity other than sole proprietorship, or one of them has to be an employee.

The population of persons may differ from one table to another. Mainly, a table either comprises holders only or an aggregate of holders and spouses/registered partners/cohabitants.

Data sources and sampling

The statistics are based on the population of agricultural holdings operated by a natural person and tax return data. Division for Income and Wage Statistics links data from the Tax statistics for personal tax payers to the population of farmers.  The tax statistics for personal taxpayers is a total census based on data from the ordinary tax assessments.

For more information:  http://www.ssb.no/en/inntekt-og-forbruk/statistikker/selvangivelse

Collection of data, editing and estimations

The statistics are based on collocation of data files that have been separately edited when established. Furthermore, the statistics have been examined for extreme values, i.g. values for individual holders or spouses/partners/cohabitants which significantly influence the whole population of agricultural holdings operated by a natural person. Individuals who fulfil one or more of the following conditions are omitted from the statistics: had a gross income of more than NOK 100 million, had a debt of more than NOK 100 million or had property of more than NOK 300 million. Annually, this concerns about 10 individuals.

Some holders and spouses/partners/cohabitants operate holdings separately. To avoid double counting, information from the tax return data are linked to the holding with the largest production. Annually, this concerns about 100 couples.

Average figures for a variable, e.g. wages and salaries for the holder, is estimated by summing up the value of the variable wages and salaries for all holders and divide the sum with the number of total holders. This means that holders without wages and salaries are included in the average figures.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

Figures are not presented if there is a risk of identifying any unit.

Comparability over time and space

Changes in the tax regulations influence the data and consequently the statistics over time. The tax regulations were significantly changed as from 1992. The statistics are essentially comparable for the period 1992 - 2002. In 2003, the tax return forms filled in by self-employed persons were considerably changed. Particularly, a separate deduction in entrepreneurial income from agriculture was deducted before the entrepreneurial income was transferred to the tax return form. Due to this neither the entrepreneurial income nor the gross income are comparable with the other years. As from 2004, the agricultural deduction again is stated as a deduction on the tax return.

Changes in tax regulations as from 1 January 2006 increased taxes for certain types of income. Due to this, taxpayers realised income in 2005 to avoid increased taxes in 2006 or later years.

Changes in the regulation concerning governmental production subsidies as per 31 July 2002 have caused increased number of holdings operated by other legal entities than sole proprietorship. This concerns particularly the legal entities general partnership and general partnership with shared liability. Furthermore, the changes of the regulation has influenced the number of holders participating in joint operation (organised as general partnerships) and at the same time running their own enterprise (sole proprietorship). Before 2002, holders participating in joint operation in milk production had to apply separately for area production subsidies. Now, the participants may choose whether they will cultivate fodder in own separate enterprise or operate the area jointly.

From 2002, holders applying governmental production subsidies as a general condition had to be registered in the Value Added Tax Registration List. Later, the minimum turnover for being in this list has increased. In order to still include small holdings, a new condition was introduced; the holding has to have an overall turnover, included withdrawal of commodities, over a certain threshold during the last 12 months. At the time being, this threshold is NOK 20 000. From 2014 there is no threshold.

A revised calculation of type of farming of the holdings was implemented in the Farmers' Income and Property 2007. The revision has caused a fall in the farm types "Various grazing livestock" and "Mixed crops - livestock", while the farm type "Other field crops" has increased. Other farm types are hardly affected.

New changes in the type of farming classification have been introduced as from 2010. Before 2010 standard gross margin (SGM) was used as common unit of measurement for various crop and livestock husbandry within a holding. From 2010 and onwards SGM is replaced by standard output (SO). Some other changes concerning the methodology are also introduced. The two versions are not fully comparable.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The most important source of error is that taxpayers may fill in incorrect information on income, deductions, property or debt in the personal tax return or place amounts under wrong items. In most cases this will be detected and corrected by the local tax offices. Nevertheless, errors that do not influence the assessment of taxes may be ignored. Furthermore, errors may also originate during the scanning of the tax return forms, despite of the fact that controls are executed.

A non-significant number of holdings are missing information on income etc. No information is imputed for these holdings.

Statistics Norway receives data from the Directorate of Taxes before all complaints from taxpayers are finished.

Revision

Not relevant