297727
/en/jord-skog-jakt-og-fiskeri/statistikker/binfo/aar
297727
statistikk
2019-03-04T08:00:00.000Z
Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing;Income and consumption
en
binfo, Farmers’ income and debt, agricultural income, income from self-employment, farmersIncome and wealth, Agriculture , Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing, Income and consumption
true

Farmers’ income and debt

Updated

Next update

Key figures

200 600

NOK average entrepreneurial income from agriculture for farmers

Farmers’ income and debt
2017Change in per cent
2016 - 20172012 - 2017
Personal holders (number)38 037-2.1-9.7
 
Average income for holders (NOK)661 8002.821.1
Wages and salaries276 3002.619.8
Entrepreneurial income from agriculture200 6005.523.6
Other entrepreneurial income74 100-2.17.1
Pensions57 1003.836.9
Capital income etc.53 7000.225.5
 
Average debt for holders (NOK)2 165 0001.229.6

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Entrepreneurial income from agriculture for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder

Entrepreneurial income from agriculture for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder
Entrepreneurial income from agricultureHolders by entrepreneurial income from agriculture
TotalPer holderHolders, totalWithout positive income1 - 49 999 NOK50 000 - 99 999 NOK100 000 - 249 999 NOK250 000 - 399 999 NOK400 000 and more
NOK millionNOKNumberPer cent
20157 586191 60039 600301214161116
20167 389190 10038 868301313161217
20177 629200 60038 037311213151118
 
2017
County
Østfold488233 9002 084271016171120
Akershus and Oslo413211 1001 955291216161116
Hedmark754251 0003 004281013161321
Oppland819195 2004 197301114151318
Buskerud322157 0002 054341316161012
Vestfold290224 5001 290341113151017
Telemark141105 9001 3324516131269
Aust-Agder91136 40066541141214712
Vest-Agder145141 7001 02341141212912
Rogaland966247 7003 901251113161223
Hordaland314107 0002 9324416111288
Sogn og Fjordane454166 0002 737291413191214
Møre og Romsdal457192 2002 378331211141019
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)542206 2002 630321111141220
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)711252 7002 815241012161425
Nordland480248 6001 929251111151226
Troms - Romsa184220 100838271010171322
Finnmark - Finnmárku58212 5002733612713823
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds770116 5006 6113615191687
Other field crops524144 1003 63443171210711
Horticulture and permanent crops331294 8001 124271111161124
Cattle - dairying2 342400 2005 851624172446
Cattle - rearing and fattening621156 9003 956321016201111
Cattle - mixed410464 000883724112453
Sheep80184 1009 5264117161564
Various grazing livestock277116 5002 37547121112810
Granivores921451 6002 0401358151743
Mixed cropping72347 700207259916933
Mixed livestock240419 2005721854102043
Mixed crops - livestock322255 7001 258321311121122
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares294278 9001 054321010141124
5 - 49 decares19852 6003 76259199733
50 - 99 decares38559 0006 529522013933
100 - 199 decares1 255121 70010 3113415181798
200 - 299 decares1 425218 3006 52619816221719
300 - 499 decares1 982331 4005 9791349192035
500 decares or more2 091539 4003 876825121856
 
Holders by sex
Males6 882214 50032 084301213151220
Females747125 4005 9533914141599

Table 2 
Average income for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder. NOK

Average income for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder. NOK
Total gross incomeWages and salariesEntrepreneurial income from agricultureOther entrepreneurial incomePensionsCapital income etc
2015642 300263 700191 60073 30052 40061 300
2016643 700269 300190 10075 70055 00053 600
2017661 800276 300200 60074 10057 10053 700
 
2017
County
Østfold820 100322 200233 900102 60062 40098 900
Akershus and Oslo858 100343 900211 100122 30073 800107 000
Hedmark699 300250 000251 00087 90058 70051 800
Oppland617 800250 000195 20076 40048 50047 700
Buskerud731 100303 300157 000122 30058 30090 300
Vestfold808 000334 100224 50093 20063 00093 300
Telemark629 400329 400105 90080 40073 00040 800
Aust-Agder597 900273 800136 40084 00064 40039 400
Vest-Agder624 500296 500141 70069 30056 30060 800
Rogaland693 700267 900247 70065 90053 20059 100
Hordaland594 400340 200107 00050 90065 30031 100
Sogn og Fjordane567 600258 900166 00045 10061 40036 300
Møre og Romsdal620 900260 400192 20063 50056 90047 800
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)623 100265 300206 20063 30047 20041 100
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)655 000257 700252 70061 90041 00041 700
Nordland573 000195 000248 60048 10060 30021 000
Troms - Romsa544 000194 900220 10052 50057 50019 100
Finnmark - Finnmárku551 000206 600212 50062 00049 50020 500
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds773 700400 600116 50099 70080 00076 900
Other field crops686 800318 600144 10081 00080 10062 900
Horticulture and permanent crops770 300261 900294 80077 60068 50067 600
Cattle - dairying601 40097 500400 20050 30024 10029 200
Cattle - rearing and fattening618 300281 400156 90085 60046 70047 700
Cattle - mixed674 70090 500464 00069 70018 80031 700
Sheep573 200319 50084 10060 20068 00041 500
Various grazing livestock619 000297 300116 50079 50055 20070 500
Granivores832 500210 800451 60069 60026 00074 600
Mixed cropping768 100229 600347 70078 70059 40052 600
Mixed livestock759 400172 500419 20092 50019 30055 900
Mixed crops - livestock726 000254 900255 70086 90062 10066 400
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares732 500259 300278 90063 50065 50065 200
5 - 49 decares600 500353 30052 60055 80088 60050 100
50 - 99 decares606 600346 30059 00059 80084 30057 100
100 - 199 decares613 900312 100121 70067 90063 10049 000
200 - 299 decares639 600247 200218 30075 90044 20054 100
300 - 499 decares688 000200 100331 40080 40030 50045 600
500 decares or more919 300160 100539 400122 30025 40072 200
 
Holders by sex
Males687 700274 400214 50079 80060 50058 400
Females522 300286 600125 40043 10038 80028 400

Table 3 
Holders by entrepreneurial income from agriculture as per cent of gross income, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder

Holders by entrepreneurial income from agriculture as per cent of gross income, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder
Holders, totalShare of holders by entrepreneurial income from agriculture as per cent of gross income
0 per cent1-9 per cent10-49 per cent50-89 per cent90 per cent or more
201539 6003014281612
201638 8683015281513
201738 0373114271513
 
2017
County
Østfold2 0842716341410
Akershus and Oslo1 955291736136
Hedmark3 0042812281913
Oppland4 1972913271813
Buskerud2 054331830145
Vestfold1 290341728148
Telemark1 33244192395
Aust-Agder665411425137
Vest-Agder1 0234115241010
Rogaland3 9012413281717
Hordaland2 932441821107
Sogn og Fjordane2 7372815291612
Møre og Romsdal2 3783314231416
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)2 6303113241815
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)2 8152313271819
Nordland1 9292511251722
Troms - Romsa8382710241921
Finnmark - Finnmárku2733612181421
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds6 61136233372
Other field crops3 634421924106
Horticulture and permanent crops1 1242713281912
Cattle - dairying5 85163193439
Cattle - rearing and fattening3 956311334148
Cattle - mixed88372163441
Sheep9 52641192885
Various grazing livestock2 375471421118
Granivores2 040128282825
Mixed cropping2072510272217
Mixed livestock572185192730
Mixed crops - livestock1 2583113261811
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares1 0543112291514
5 - 49 decares3 76259191642
50 - 99 decares6 52952221943
100 - 199 decares10 311331831118
200 - 299 decares6 5261912341916
300 - 499 decares5 979137292625
500 decares or more3 87684253430
 
Holders by sex
Males32 0842915271614
Females5 953391429118

Table 4 
Interest paid and debt for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder

Interest paid and debt for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder
Interest paid, total. NOK millionInterest paid per holder. NOKDebt, total. NOK millionDebt per holder. NOK
20152 69768 10078 7261 988 000
20162 45863 20083 1682 140 000
20172 55067 00082 3472 165 000
 
2017
County
Østfold18287 4006 0682 912 000
Akershus and Oslo13870 5004 8072 459 000
Hedmark25986 3008 4332 807 000
Oppland24357 8007 8361 867 000
Buskerud10852 7003 8001 850 000
Vestfold10581 7003 5732 769 000
Telemark6548 6002 1231 594 000
Aust-Agder3958 5001 3131 975 000
Vest-Agder6664 1002 1182 070 000
Rogaland34287 60011 6482 986 000
Hordaland12442 3004 2231 440 000
Sogn og Fjordane10438 1003 4921 276 000
Møre og Romsdal14059 0004 2511 787 000
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)16964 3005 2702 004 000
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)25791 4007 7882 766 000
Nordland14776 1003 8061 973 000
Troms - Romsa4755 5001 3471 607 000
Finnmark - Finnmárku1656 8004531 660 000
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds34752 40011 7311 774 000
Other field crops17748 7005 8301 604 000
Horticulture and permanent crops8171 9002 8222 511 000
Cattle - dairying50185 60015 9712 730 000
Cattle - rearing and fattening27068 3008 5952 173 000
Cattle - mixed95107 5003 1103 522 000
Sheep39241 20011 9481 254 000
Various grazing livestock15464 9004 7141 985 000
Granivores320156 70010 3725 084 000
Mixed cropping1783 9005912 854 000
Mixed livestock99173 0003 3575 869 000
Mixed crops - livestock9777 4003 3072 629 000
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares10397 5003 3843 211 000
5 - 49 decares15039 9004 7891 273 000
50 - 99 decares25539 1008 0361 231 000
100 - 199 decares47546 00015 0721 462 000
200 - 299 decares41062 80012 9411 983 000
300 - 499 decares53890 00017 4022 911 000
500 decares or more619159 70020 7225 346 000
 
Holders by sex
Males2 25370 20072 6462 264 000
Females29850 0009 7001 629 000

Table 5 
Holders by size of debt, county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder

Holders by size of debt, county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder
Holders, totalHolders by size of debt
NOK 0-0.09 millionNOK 0.1-0.9 millionNOK 1-1.9 millionNOK 2-3.9 millionNOK 4 million or more
201539 6007 60311 1567 4727 7975 572
201638 8687 37310 4277 1267 7906 152
201738 0377 36310 0236 8827 5616 208
 
2017
County
Østfold2 084287500328450519
Akershus and Oslo1 955334510310423378
Hedmark3 004426758524611685
Oppland4 1977771 261817839503
Buskerud2 054449549360441255
Vestfold1 290231271200287301
Telemark1 332317364279244128
Aust-Agder66513716811614698
Vest-Agder1 023233230176215169
Rogaland3 9016688125768261 019
Hordaland2 932792794569543234
Sogn og Fjordane2 737777874502395189
Møre og Romsdal2 378500676452462288
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)2 630466707550534373
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)2 815390628496620681
Nordland1 929367568384328282
Troms - Romsa83816027318014283
Finnmark - Finnmárku2735280635523
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds6 6111 5051 7991 1951 343769
Other field crops3 6349361 022655659362
Horticulture and permanent crops1 124230275199221199
Cattle - dairying5 8515721 6879971 1751 420
Cattle - rearing and fattening3 9566311 019756909641
Cattle - mixed88348210136198291
Sheep9 5262 6472 7491 9431 679508
Various grazing livestock2 375405581502595292
Granivores2 040522612194051 103
Mixed cropping2072757313953
Mixed livestock57241666692307
Mixed crops - livestock1 258269297183246263
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares1 054183214138175344
5 - 49 decares3 7621 297949652619245
50 - 99 decares6 5292 0271 9101 2161 005371
100 - 199 decares10 3112 4323 1471 9911 916825
200 - 299 decares6 5269191 9401 3041 519844
300 - 499 decares5 9794211 3861 1341 4811 557
500 decares or more3 876844774478462 022
 
Holders by sex
Males32 0845 6938 4695 8236 5435 556
Females5 9531 6701 5541 0591 018652

About the statistics

The statistics present figures for incomes and debt for persons who are operating agricultural holdings, independent of the holding as source of income. The amounts are derived from tax statistics for personal tax payers.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Agricultural holding

A single unit both technically and economically, which has single management and which produces agricultural products. The holding is independent of municipality boundaries. The agricultural holding's headquarter must be located to an agricultural property.



Holder

The person considered responsible for operating the holding.


Gross income

Total wages and salaries, pensions, entrepreneurial income and property income.


Wages and salaries

Comprise payments in cash and in kind, taxable sick pay and unemployment benefit.


Pensions

Cover all benefit paid by social security and private pension and life insurance benefit.


Entrepreneurial income

A result of the activities of a self-employed person, and is estimated from profit and loss account and balance sheet. The entrepreneurial income is transferred to the tax return and is included in the calculation of ordinary income.


Entrepreneurial income from agriculture

This is positive entrepreneurial income from agriculture according to the tax return. In addition, entrepreneurial social security benefits in agriculture, forestry and fishery are included. Deductions such as membership payments to industry organisations, the year's entrepreneurial deficit, interest on debt and a separate agricultural deduction are not deducted. Income from any supplementary industry executed on the holding, e.g. forestry, are included in other entrepreneurial income if the industry concerned are considered as independent according to taxation.


Capital income

Consist of interest income, dividends, realised capital gains, rent and other income from property.

Standard classifications

The following classifications are used in the tables: county where the holding is located, size of holding expressed in decares of utilised agricultural area, type of farming of the holding and sex of holder.

County
Oslo County is merged with Akershus County.





Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Farmers’ income and debt
Topic: Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing

Next release

Responsible division

Division for Primary Industry Statistics

Regional level

County

Frequency and timeliness

Annual, about 55 weeks after the reference year

International reporting

Not relevant

Microdata

A data file with anonymous individual data is stored at Statistics Norway.

Background

Background and purpose

The purpose is to present statistics on incomes and debt for persons who are operating agricultural holdings, independent of the holding as source of income. An essential feature of the Norwegian agriculture is that many persons that are running agricultural holdings work part-time in agriculture or the work is concentrated to the growing season. Many holders have wage/salary or entrepreneurial income from other industries as main source of income.

Statistics Norway has produced statistics on the farmers' income, property and taxes based on the tax assessment for personal taxpayers since 1968. More detailed tax return data have been presented from 1999 and onwards.

Users and applications

There is much focus on level, distribution and development of incomes of holders in agriculture. The main users of the statistics are the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, the Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, the Agricultural Budget Commission, the Norwegian Farmers Union, the Norwegian Smallholders Union etc.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar.

Coherence with other statistics

Yearly, Statistics Norway also presents Income statistics for all self-employed persons . At first level the self-employed persons are classified into two groups: self-employed with main income from industry and self-employed with main income from wages/salaries and pensions. Furthermore, those with main income from industry are classified into primary industries and other industries. Primary industries consist of agriculture, forestry and fishery.

The The Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research yearly presents Account Results in Agriculture and Forestry. This survey shows results for holdings where most of the family's total income are derived from the holding. More information: http://www.nibio.no/.

Legal authority

Statistics Act §§2-1, 3-2

EEA reference

Not relevant

Production

Population

Agricultural holdings are operated by two main types of holders: natural person and legal person. The total number of holdings has been decreasing over many years, while during the last years the number of holdings operated by a legal person has increased. The percentage of holdings operated by a legal person has increased from 1 per cent in 1999 to 6 per cent in 2008. Later, the percentage has been almost unchanged. The statistics on the farmers' income and property cover only agricultural holdings operated by a natural person.

The holdings vary much in size, from hobby-like production to holdings with a turnover of more than NOK 1 million. Some of the holdings have small-scale production under the threshold to be considered an industry by the tax authorities.

The individual person who is considered as responsible for operating the holding is referred to as holder (farmer). Some holdings change holder during the year. Mainly, the holder being holder as per 31 July the year concerned is included. For the holders information has been obtained on any spouse, registered partner or cohabitant. Up to and including 2004, cohabitant included only he/she who had children in common with the holder. As from 2005, also cohabitant who lived together with holder according to the Population and Housing Census 2001 and still has common address is included.

Married couples and registered partners who jointly operate a holding may share the taxable entrepreneurial income. Cohabitants who want to share the entrepreneurial income from a jointly operated holding have to organise the management as a legal entity other than sole proprietorship, or one of them has to be an employee.

The population of persons may differ from one table to another. Mainly, a table either comprises holders only or an aggregate of holders and spouses/registered partners/cohabitants.

Data sources and sampling

The statistics are based on the population of agricultural holdings operated by a natural person and tax return data. Division for Income and Wage Statistics links data from the Tax statistics for personal tax payers to the population of farmers.  The tax statistics for personal taxpayers is a total census based on data from the ordinary tax assessments.

For more information:  http://www.ssb.no/en/inntekt-og-forbruk/statistikker/selvangivelse

Collection of data, editing and estimations

The statistics are based on collocation of data files that have been separately edited when established. Furthermore, the statistics have been examined for extreme values, i.g. values for individual holders or spouses/partners/cohabitants which significantly influence the whole population of agricultural holdings operated by a natural person. Individuals who fulfil one or more of the following conditions are omitted from the statistics: had a gross income of more than NOK 100 million, had a debt of more than NOK 100 million or had property of more than NOK 300 million. Annually, this concerns about 10 individuals.

Some holders and spouses/partners/cohabitants operate holdings separately. To avoid double counting, information from the tax return data are linked to the holding with the largest production. Annually, this concerns about 100 couples.

Average figures for a variable, e.g. wages and salaries for the holder, is estimated by summing up the value of the variable wages and salaries for all holders and divide the sum with the number of total holders. This means that holders without wages and salaries are included in the average figures.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

Figures are not presented if there is a risk of identifying any unit.

Comparability over time and space

Changes in the tax regulations influence the data and consequently the statistics over time. The tax regulations were significantly changed as from 1992. The statistics are essentially comparable for the period 1992 - 2002. In 2003, the tax return forms filled in by self-employed persons were considerably changed. Particularly, a separate deduction in entrepreneurial income from agriculture was deducted before the entrepreneurial income was transferred to the tax return form. Due to this neither the entrepreneurial income nor the gross income are comparable with the other years. As from 2004, the agricultural deduction again is stated as a deduction on the tax return.

Changes in tax regulations as from 1 January 2006 increased taxes for certain types of income. Due to this, taxpayers realised income in 2005 to avoid increased taxes in 2006 or later years.

Changes in the regulation concerning governmental production subsidies as per 31 July 2002 have caused increased number of holdings operated by other legal entities than sole proprietorship. This concerns particularly the legal entities general partnership and general partnership with shared liability. Furthermore, the changes of the regulation has influenced the number of holders participating in joint operation (organised as general partnerships) and at the same time running their own enterprise (sole proprietorship). Before 2002, holders participating in joint operation in milk production had to apply separately for area production subsidies. Now, the participants may choose whether they will cultivate fodder in own separate enterprise or operate the area jointly.

From 2002, holders applying governmental production subsidies as a general condition had to be registered in the Value Added Tax Registration List. Later, the minimum turnover for being in this list has increased. In order to still include small holdings, a new condition was introduced; the holding has to have an overall turnover, included withdrawal of commodities, over a certain threshold during the last 12 months. At the time being, this threshold is NOK 20 000. From 2014 there is no threshold.

A revised calculation of type of farming of the holdings was implemented in the Farmers' Income and Property 2007. The revision has caused a fall in the farm types "Various grazing livestock" and "Mixed crops - livestock", while the farm type "Other field crops" has increased. Other farm types are hardly affected.

New changes in the type of farming classification have been introduced as from 2010. Before 2010 standard gross margin (SGM) was used as common unit of measurement for various crop and livestock husbandry within a holding. From 2010 and onwards SGM is replaced by standard output (SO). Some other changes concerning the methodology are also introduced. The two versions are not fully comparable.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The most important source of error is that taxpayers may fill in incorrect information on income, deductions, property or debt in the personal tax return or place amounts under wrong items. In most cases this will be detected and corrected by the local tax offices. Nevertheless, errors that do not influence the assessment of taxes may be ignored. Furthermore, errors may also originate during the scanning of the tax return forms, despite of the fact that controls are executed.

A non-significant number of holdings are missing information on income etc. No information is imputed for these holdings.

Statistics Norway receives data from the Directorate of Taxes before all complaints from taxpayers are finished.

Revision

Not relevant