Energy and manufacturing

Energy use - StatRes (discontinued)2008

This statistics has been discontinued. Consult the statistics Energy consumption in service industries.


About the statistics


Name and topic

Name: Energy use - StatRes (discontinued)
Topic: Energy and manufacturing

Responsible division

Division for Energy and Environmental Statistics

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Building type : Describes area of application, which could be a hospital, kindergarten or an office building. In the GAB/Matrikkelen, the buildings within service industries are separated into 100 different building types. However, to avoid over-complex statistics, a choice is made to group the building types into fewer categories. Building types that have similar areas of application or energy use are aggregated into the same groups. The main area of application of the building is what determines which building type a building is categorised in. For buildings that house activities within several areas of which the Central government is one, this statistics includes all buildings where the Central government constitutes more than 50 % of the activities in the building.

Industry : An industry describes the main activity in the building. Often the main activities in a building coincide with building type; a hospital and commodity trade for example. In some buildings it can still be difficult to define main activity based on building type, or the case could be that there are many different activities in the same buildings. Questions on the amount of the area used for different activities are therefore included in the questionnaire.

In the temporary statistics, the main results on building type are published, while in the final publication, the industry will be included.

Energy use : Includes all energy types used in buildings. This includes all energy used for room heating, hot water, cooling, lighting, electrical devices or other purposes. The most common energy sources in industrial buildings are electricity, district heating, heating oil, paraffin, gas and pellets, but other energy types such as wood and local heating from neighbouring buildings should also be included if this is part of the energy use. It is the actual added energy into the building that is reported. This corresponds to the energy that building owners have to pay for. Energy economising, such as installed heating pumps and control systems leads to a reduced need to buy energy, thus capturing energy efficiency.

Standard classifications

Building types in these statistics are classified according to the Norwegian standard, NS 3457, for building types (GAB/Martikkelen).

Administrative information

Regional level

National level.

Frequency and timeliness

This is the first survey of statistics on energy use in service industries. In the future, this survey will be published every second or third year. Temporary data are published 11 months after the reference year. Final data are published approximately 1.5 years after the reference year.

International reporting

Not relevant


Micro data for these statistics are internally stored by the division for energy statistics according to Statistics Norway’s guidelines for storing computer files.


Background and purpose

The primary purpose of the statistics is to provide an overview of energy use, heating equipment and energy efficiency in industrial buildings within the Central government. The statistics is based on parts of the datasample from the statistics energy use in service industries , which covers all types of office and industrial buildings within the service industry incl. the Central government. The 2008 survey is based on a co-operative project between Statistics Norway, NVE, ENOVA and StatRes- project in Statistics Norway.

Users and applications

The statistics will be used by private and public institutions that work with energy use in Central governmnet buildings. The statistics will be an important part of the data material that is used as a basis for the calculation of energy accounts, energy balances, and emissions to air, as well as primary material for analysis and research.

Coherence with other statistics

The statistics for energy use within the Central government is part of the main survey for Energy use in the Service industries (which icludes both private and government activities). Statistics covering energy use in the Service industries is also published as part of the Energy balances and energy accounts (see 2.2).

Legal authority

The Statistics Act of 16 June 1989 §§2-1, 2-2 and 2-3

EEA reference

Not relevant



The population covers all buildings within Central government. Publicly owned enterprises (Statoil, Telenor ASA, Norges Bank m.fl) are not part of the StatRes statistics, and is therefore excluded from this statistics. The population and sample of the main survey is drawn from building type 300-800 in central property register (GAB) and for the statistics covering the Central government only sector 110 in the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises is included.

Data sources and sampling

Information on the buildings in the sample are collected from the central property, address and building register in Norway (GAB/Matrikkelen) as well as Statistics Norway’s own SSB-GAB register.

From the population, a sample consisting of approximately 8 000 buildings is drawn. The main goal for the sample is to be as representative as possible and cover a large part of service industries and building types within these industries. The buildings in the sample are supposed to have a geographic spread in order to cover the effect of local climate on energy use. Because of the importance of area, there is a need for the sample to include as many large buildings as possible with over 5 000 m2. There is no complete overview of areas for all buildings in Matrikkelen and therefore there is uncertainty concerning how large a share of the total area in service industries is covered by these statistics.

To avoid double reporting and also to strengthen the data foundation, building information from Statsbygg and Enova’s building network are incorporated into the data basis.

The total energy use in the buildings within the Central government constitutes approximately one quarter of the total energy use in the main survey.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

The survey is based on data collected by questionnaire. The questionnaires are distributed in February a year after the reference year and submitted by paper or electronically via IDUN. The questionnaires are sent to landed property because of a lack of information on building owners. Because the Statistics Act is applied in these statistics, the owner of the landed property has a filing requirement.

Controls of 2008 statistics will mainly be of the logical type. The first control consists of checking whether there is a consistency between given energy use and area (kWh/m2). Buildings with unusually large or low energy intensity are closely examined.

This includes buildings with:

*Energy use over 500 kWh/m2

*Energy use below 100 kWh/m2

Within most building types, energy use above 500 kWh/m2 or below 100 kWh/m2 is unusual. In these cases, therefore, either energy use or area is incorrectly reported. But because some exceptions exist, a closer examination on factors that lead to either high or low energy use is done before these numbers are corrected.

A comparison with other sources that have statistics on energy use in buildings is also done. Some of the most comprehensive sources are Enova’s building network and the energy report by Statsbygg. This way, we are able to control the reasonableness of the data collected by Statistics Norway.

The temporary statistics result in relative numbers for the sample, average energy use per square meter and energy use by energy sources.


Confidential micro data: According to § 2-4 of the Statistics Act, collected data are subject to secrecy and are to be kept or destroyed in a secure manner. Any use of the data must be in accordance with the rules set out by the Data Inspectorate.

Time series that are not to be published: The publication of data is subject to the provisions of § 2-6 of the Statistics Act. The main rule is that data should not be published if they can be traced back to the respondent, i.e. figures for which less than three respondents make up the foundation for a cell in the table, figures where one respondent represents more than 90 per cent of the total value, or figures where two respondents represent at least 95 per cent of the total value.

Unpublished data: Revised data that are not published are subject to secrecy. This means they are unavailable to users without explicit approval. Such agreements only apply to internal users.

Comparability over time and space

Not relevant for this year since it is the first time this statistics is published.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

In statistical surveys, there will always be some measurement errors. Measurement errors are caused by the questionnaire or the respondent’s internal system for obtaining the data. Since this survey is relatively comprehensive, there is a probability for measurement errors in the data. One specific cause could be that the respondents report only part of their energy use, so that energy use per m2 becomes too low, or that the respondents lack accurate information on total heated area.

Processing errors can occur when Statistics Norway processes the data. Typical examples are misinterpretations of answers or correct answers that for some reason are assumed to be false and corrected. Paper questionnaires are optically read with automatic verification and transmission to an electronic medium. The current techniques for optical reading are of a high quality, and few errors are found in this phase of the production. The introduction of IDUN has also helped to reduce such errors, as data from electronic questionnaires are loaded directly into the system.

The consequences of measurement and processing errors in the data are difficult to map. Removal of all obvious mistakes implies that this will not affect the published data to a large degree. Buildings with extremely high or low energy use are excluded from the published data, unless there is a justified reason for the abnormal energy use.

The response rate for these statistics has in general been relatively low. A total of 8 136 questionnaires were distributed in the main survey, and usabale data received for only just 40 percent of the buildings in the sample. However, the response rate was higher for the larger buildings in the sample. When data from Statsbygg and ENOVA is added, the main survey includes energy use data for approximately 5000 industrial buildings within the Service sector constituting a total of 22.5 million square meter heated area. Approximately 5 million square meter of this heated area are Central government buildings.

Coverage error refers to uncertainties that occur in sample surveys as opposed to full counts. There is a clear connection between area and energy use for all building types, where the variation increases with area.

Only one fourth of the energy use data for the buildings in the Central government are retrieved from the main sample survey for the industrial buildings in the Service industries.

However, the figures (energy use/square meter) does not show any systematic skewness in the figures collected by Statistics Norway compared to other sources,

Under data collection process and controls, we detected that there are some buildings that were incorrectly classified. This can lead to skewed measurement of energy use within some building types. We have corrected these mistakes as they have been detected.