414185
/en/arbeid-og-lonn/statistikker/arbmiljo/hvert-3-aar
414185
statistikk
2020-06-29T08:00:00.000Z
Labour market and earnings;Social conditions, welfare and crime
en
arbmiljo, Working environment, survey on living conditions, working conditions, physical working environment (for example noise, work position, indoor climate), ergonomics, psychosocial work environment (for example well-being, conflicts, threats), bullying, organisational work environment (for example work load, working arrangements, employee participation), work-related health problems, accidents at workLiving conditions , Working environment, sickness absence, strikes and lockouts, Social conditions, welfare and crime, Labour market and earnings
true

Working environment, survey on living conditions

Updated

Next update

Not yet determined

Key figures

88 %

are satisfied with their job

Working environment among employed persons 18-66 years. Per cent
200020092019
The figures for 2009 for "Job demands, role conflict and expectations" were updated 29 June 2020 at 12:10 pm.
Relation to work
Satisfied with the job899088
At risk of losing job111010
Few opportunities to use education and work experience1186
Psychosocial working environment
Experience bad relationship between employees and management, often or time to time, employees313232
Exposed to violence at workplace, last 12 months..45
Exposed to unwanted sexual attention, remarks etc., once a month or more334
Physical working environment
Exposed to poor indoor climate most of the time342421
Exposed to skin-irritant substances most of the time798
Exposed to loud noise most of the time865
Ergonomical working environment
Lift at least 20 kg 5 times a day or more151210
Work with repeated or monotonous movements most of the time363636
Work with keyboard or mouse..7073
Work related health problems
Pain in neck, shoulders or upper back, due to work13119
Headache or migraine, due to work634
Physically worn out at home after work, weekly...32
Job demands, role conflict and expectations
Too much to do, often or always4947
Work demands interfere with home life and family life, often or always1415
Read and reply to work-related e-mails outside working hours, daily.23

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Selected indicators for physical working environment. Per cent

Selected indicators for physical working environment. Per cent
2019
Both sexesMalesFemales
Fysical and chemical work enviroment
Exposed to poor indoor climate most of the time211428
Exposed to skin-irritant substances most of the time8711
Exposed to poor working light most of the time333
Exposed to loud noise most of the time564
 
Ergonomic work enviroment
Lifting in uncomfortable positions most of the time554
Work standing up most of the time434146
Work sitting down most of the time606158
Work with repeated or monotonous movements most of the time363636
Lift at least 20 kg 5 times a day or more10136
Work with keyboard or mouse736977

Table 2 
Selected indicators for organizational and psychosocial working environment. Per cent

Selected indicators for organizational and psychosocial working environment. Per cent
2019
Both sexesMalesFemales
Accession to workplace and various working conditions
Temporary employment, share of employees10912
No written employment contract, share of employees332
At risk of losing job101010
Work in company where staff cuts within last 3 years have had major impact on working day, share of employees888
Not received necessary training in new technology, share of employees111011
Work in enterprise with a safety representative, share of employees828282
Member of trade union or employee organisation, share of employees565063
Often or always feel motivated and engaged in own work858486
Satisfied with the job888888
Few opportunities for professional development151416
 
Psychosocial working environment
Experience bad relationship between employees and management, often or time to time, employees322935
Experience bad relationship between employees, often or time to time, employees231927
Involved in conflicts with superiors, often or sometimes, employees888
Involved in conflicts with colleagues, often or sometimes, employees878
Exposed to violence at workplace, last 12 months537
Exposed to threat at workplace that was so serious you were afraid, last 12 months425
Exposed to harassment or teasing by colleagues, once a month or more223
Exposed to harassment or teasing by superiors, once a month or more222
Exposed to unwanted sexual attention, remarks etc., once a month or more428

Table 3 
Selected indicators on job demands and control. Per cent

Selected indicators on job demands and control. Per cent
2019
Both sexesMalesFemales
Need to work at a high pace, often or always585463
Too much to do, often or always474550
Need to hide negative feelings toward clients and customers, to a great extent151220
Must act in accordance with strong feelings among customers and clients, to a great extent181026
Work demands interfere with home life and family life, often or always151514
Contacted outside working hours by someone from work asking questions about work, daily563
Stay up-to-date on work-related electronic information outside working hours, daily...
Can decide when to take breaks from work, most of the time, employees768368
Can determine own job tasks, to a great extent313427
Can decide how to carry out work tasks, to a great extent626657
Can influence decisions that are important for own work, to a great extent485541
Inadequate tools or resources to perform tasks assigned, often or always121113
Need to do things that should have been done differently, often or always161715

Table 4 
Selected indicators for work related health problems. Per cent

Selected indicators for work related health problems. Per cent
2019
Both sexesMalesFemales
Pain in neck, shoulders or upper back, due to work9712
Pain in lower back, due to work545
Pain in arms, wrists or hands, due to work435
Pain in hips, legs, knees or feet, due to work445
Headache or migraine, due to work425
Physically worn out at home after work, weekly322837
Mentally drained at home after work, weekly221826
Sickness absence lasting more than 14 days, last 12 months151219
Sickness absence was due to health problems caused by work547
High risk of accidents at work341
Involved in accidents at work, last 12 months121

About the statistics

The survey on working environment covers physical, chemical, ergonomic and psychosocial work environment, attachment to the workplace, work related health problems, sickness absence and opportunities for self-determination at the workplace.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Persons in work

Respondents are counted as part of the working population if they performed at least one hour of paid work the past week or if they were temporarily absent from work. Both employed and self-employed are included.

Employees

Respondents who work for an employer. Does not include self-employed or persons performing unpaid work in family business. Since 2019 this category no longer includes persons who are employed in a company where they are sole-owners.

Physical work environment

Covers exposure to various physical working conditions. Presents the figures for those who are exposed to various conditions most of the time , ie the employees responded that he / she is exposed to various conditions almost all the time. Approx 3/4 of the time or half the time.

Exposed to poor indoor climate : people who are exposed to poor indoor air quality in the form of drafts, dry air, poor ventilation and others forms of poor indoor climate.


Exposed to skin irritating substances : people who in their daily work, who has:

  • skin contact with oils, lubricants or cutting fluids, or
  • with detergents, disinfectants, solvents or degreasers

Exposed to dust, gas or steam : people who in their daily work can clearly observe in the air or smell:

  • dust, smoke, gases or vapors
  • dust or fumes from metals (eg. welding fumes, lead, chromium, nickel, zinc, aluminum, copper or tin dust)
  • mineral dust (eg. from stone, quartz, cement, asbestos or mineral wool)
  • organic dust (eg. from textiles, wood, flour, cloth or animal)
  • gas / vapor (eg. ammonia, hydrochloric acid, chlorine, nitrous oxides, formaldehyde, called water vapor or solvents?

Exposure to biological materials : people who in their daily work is in contact with body fluids, ie blood, saliva, feces or urine.

Ergonomical working environment
Various issues related to movement or static postures, stressful jobs, heavy lifting etc.

Relations to work place and various working conditions
Different questions covering employment conditions, job security, restructuring and reorganization of work and its impact on the individual, satisfaction with job opportunities and health and safety issues.

Work related health complaints, work accidents and sick leave
Work related health complaints : questions about different types of health problems last month, and if the health problem is due to current job (previous job for those not working)

Long-term sick leave : persons that in the past 12 months have had continuous absence of more than 14 days

Help and feedback, cooperation, appreciation, violence and harassment

Questions covering different psychosocial factors at work.

Exposed to Violence : we ask whether the person have been the victim of workplace violence that led to visible marks or bodily injury and violence in the workplace that led to visible marks or bodily injury during the last 12 months. We then ask how many times they have been exposed to these two types of violence during the period.

Number of times exposed to violence, average: Average among employed people who have been exposed to violence

Exposed to threat of violence : we ask whether the person have been subjected to threats that were so severe that they were afraid during the last 12 months. We then ask how many times they have been exposed to this during the period.

Number of times exposed to treat of violence, average: Average among employed people who have been exposed to threat of violence

Exposed to hassle or teasing: we ask if the person are exposed to bullying or nasty teasing of fellow workers once or more times a week, once or several times a month or never. We then ask person is subjected to bullying or nasty teasing of superior once or more times a week, once or several times a month or never.

Exposed to unwanted sexual attention, remarks, etc.: we ask if the person are exposed to unwanted sexual attention, comments, etc. in their workplace, once or more times a week, once or several times a month or never.

Job demands, control, role conflict and expectations in the job

The questions cover different psychosocial factors at work, such as client contact, requirements in terms of speed, ability to maintain control over various aspects of their own work, role conflict and expectations in the job.

Standard classifications

Age

Persons are grouped by age at year-end for the completion of the main part of the interview.

Occupation

 In 2011 there was also implemented a new Norwegian standard classification of occupations . (STYRK-08). This is based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations 2008 - ISCO-08. The standard is adjusted in the publishing of results from the level of living survey on working environment 2013.  These adjustments are described below.

1-digit classification:
1 = Managers
2+35 = Professinals
3 = Technicians and associate professionals
4 = Clerical support workers
5 = Service and sales workers 
6 = Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers
7 = Craft and trades workers
8 = Plant and machine operators, and assemblers
9 = Elementary occupations
0+3351+3355+54 = Protective services workers, police, armed forces and unspecified

2-digit classification:
11-14 = Managers
21 = Science and engineering professionals
22 = Health professionals
222 = Nursing and midwifery professionals
23 = Teaching professionals
24 = Business and administration professionals
25+35 = ICT professionals and ICT technicians
26 = Legal, social and cultural professionals
31 = Science and engineering associate professionals 
32 = Health associate professionals
33 = Business and administration associate professionals
34 = Legal, social, cultural and related associate professionals
41+44 = General and keyboard clerks and other clerical support workers
42 = Customer services clerks
43 = Numerical and material recording clerks
51 = Personal service wokers
52 = Sales workers 
53 = Personal care workers 
61-62 =  Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers
71 = Building and related trades workers, excluding electricians
72 = Metal, machinery and related trades workers
74 = lectrical and electronics trades workers
73+75 = Handicraft, food processing and other craft related trades workers
81-82 = Stationary plant and machine operators and assemblers
83 = Drivers and mobile plant operators
91 = Cleaners and helpers
92-96 = Labourers in agriculture, mining etc
01-03+3351+3355+54 = Protective services workers, police, armed forces etc
00 = Unspecified or unidentifiable occupations

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Working environment, survey on living conditions
Topic: Labour market and earnings

Responsible division

Division for Income and social welfare statistics

Regional level

National.

Frequency and timeliness

The survey on working conditions and working environment is carried out every 3 years. The topic used to be part of the general Survey og Living Conditions EU-SILC which is conducted annually, with rotating topics.

International reporting

Not relevant

Microdata

Data files with results from the interviews and statistical files with coded variables, linked information and weights are stored. Anonymised files are also available for researchers through the Norwegian Social Science Data Archives .

Background

Background and purpose

The Survey of Living Conditions aim to give insight into the main aspects of and differences in living conditions, and follow their development over time. The Survey of Living Conditions EU-SILC will, together with the surveys of working conditions and health care and social contact, over a 3-year period cover the major areas of living conditions.

The first surveys of living conditions in Norway were conducted six times between 1973 and 1995. These surveys shed light on the general components of living conditions; economics, housing conditions, leisure, social contact, health, education, employment and working conditions.

In 1996 a coordinated system of surveys was introduced. The system consisted of annual surveys with a set of rotating topics and an annual panel survey. Work environment was the theme in 1996, 2000, 2003, 2006 and 2009. Housing, leisure activities and victims of crime was the theme in 1997, 2001, 2004 and 2007. Health care and social relations was the theme in 1998, 2002, 2005 and 2008. The annual panel survey covered some important main topic.

The regular living conditions survey by Statistics Norway consists, from 2011, of the annual Survey of Living Conditions EU-SILC, a survey of working environment that is carried out every three years, and a survey of health that is carried out approximately every five years.

Users and applications

The main users are government ministries, directorates, and research communities in the areas of working environment, health care, housing, leisure and local environment and living conditions in general.

Apart from this the statistics serve as a basis for information to the media and others interested in the condition and development in the living conditions.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08:00 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

The concept of living conditions covers a very wide range of topics and statistics on living conditions is therefore associated with many other statistics.

Information on employment is collected from several sources. The Labour Force Survey is an important source and provide some information that supplements the information in the study of living conditions, eg. training in the workplace, weekend work, working arrangements and disability relation to the labor market. Some records like the employee/employer registry, sick leave registry etc. are also relevant. The information in these registers can also be utilized in the survey of living conditions.

Legal authority

Voluntary survey

EEA reference

Not relevant

Production

Population

The living condition survey on working conditions earlier included persons at the age 16-66 years, and as from 2006 persons aged 18-66 years. Employed short-term immigrants and persons living in insitutions are not covered by the statistics.

Data sources and sampling

Data sources are interview data from the annual representative sample surveys and various attached registry information.

Tha main sample for the SLC about working conditions is 5000 persons. Usually this has been supplied with an additional sample. as from 2006 the sample is 20-21 000 persons. In addition to having cross-sectional properties the survey will be a panel, so that the same people will be contacted again the next time the SLC about working conditions is conducted.

The sample is drawn according to the procedures for random selection.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Data collection is done by telephone (Computer Assisted Telephone Interview CATI). Data collection for the Survey of Working Environment occurs mainly from in the autumn in the year of interview.

The interview takes place using a computer-based questionnaire. The questionnaire includes various controls to prevent incorrect answers or registration errors during the interview. In some cases, the interviewer receives warnings for the registered response. In other cases, there is a limit on values that can not be exceeded. Moreover, it verifies that only valid codes are recorded.

In surveys where industry and occupation are collected, these are encoded by Statistics Norway.

The sample consists of people.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

Not relevant

Comparability over time and space

The SLC on working environment is based partly on the earlier surveys on working environment in 1989 and 1993. Some time series can thus be traced back to 1989. In recent years, major revisions were made in 2006 and 2009. In some areas time series are therefore short.  In 2008 the new  Norwegian Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007) implemented in Statistics Norway. The standard is based on EUs NACE rev.2. In 2011 there was also implemented a new Norwegian standard classification of occupations . (STYRK-08). This is based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations 2008 - ISCO-08.  

 

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The gross sample is drawn in order to reflect the whole population, however, because non-response differs unequally in the different categories used, the net sample will not be fully representative. This bias will vary for different groups and variables in question. In order to adjust for some of the biases that the net sample in relation to the gross sample, figures in the tables are weighted. The following variables are included in the weighting for non-response: Gender, age, education and family size.

The uncertainty of the findings based only a part of the population is often called sampling variance. Standard deviation is a measure of this uncertainty. The size of standard deviation depends, among other factors, on the number of observation in the sample, and on the distribution of the current variable in the whole population.

Statistic Norway has not made exact calculations to compute standard deviation for the findings. However, in table 1, the approximate size of standard deviation is given for observed percentages.

To illustrate the uncertainty associated with a percentage, we can use an interval to give the level of the true value of an estimated quantity (the value obtained if making observation on the whole population instead of observation based on a part of the population). Such intervals are called confidence intervals if constructed in a special way. In this connection one can use the following method: let M be the estimated quantity, and S the estimate of standard deviation of M. The confidence interval will be an interval with limits (M - 2*S) and (M + 2*S).

This method will give, with approximately 95 per cent probability, an interval containing the true value.

The following example illustrates the use of table 1 for finding confidence intervals: The estimate of standard deviation of 70 percent is 3.2 when the estimate is based on 300 observations. The confidence interval for the true value has limits 70 ± 2*3.2, which means the interval, is from 63.6 to 76.4 per cent.

Table 1. Standard deviation in per cent

Number of observations

Per cent

 

5(95)

10(90)

15(85)

20(80)

25(75)

30(70)

35(65)

40(60)

45(55)

50(50)

50

3.8

5.2

6.2

6.9

7.5

7.9

8.3

8.5

8.6

8.7

75

3.1

4.2

5.1

5.7

6.1

6.5

6.8

6.9

7

7.1

100

2.7

3.7

4.4

4.9

5.3

5.6

5.8

6

6.1

6.1

150

2.2

3

3.6

4

4.3

4.6

4.8

4.9

5

5

200

1.9

2.6

3.1

3.5

3.8

4

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.3

250

1.7

2.3

2.8

3.1

3.4

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.9

3.9

300

1.5

2.1

2.5

2.8

3.1

3.2

3.4

3.5

3.5

3.5

400

1.3

1.8

2.2

2.5

2.7

2.8

2.9

3

3.1

3.1

600

1.1

1.5

1.8

2

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.5

2.5

800

0.9

1.3

1.6

1.7

1.9

2

2.1

2.1

2.2

2.2

1 000

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

1.9

1.9

1.9

1 500

0.7

1

1.1

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.5

1.6

1.6

1.6

2 000

0.6

0.8

1

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.4

1.4

2 500

0.5

0.7

0.9

1

1.1

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

3 000

0.4

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.9

1

1

1

1

4 000

0.4

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.8

0.9

0.9

1

1

1

Revision

Not relevant

Fact sheet