435526
/en/arbeid-og-lonn/statistikker/arblonn/kvartal
435526
statistikk
2021-02-08T08:00:00.000Z
Labour market and earnings;Immigration and immigrants
en
arblonn, Number of employments and earnings, business cycle, business trend, cyclic development, cyclical trend, economic cycle, economic trend, employee, salaried employee, workEmployment , Labour market and earnings, Labour market and earnings, Immigration and immigrants
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Number of employments and earnings

Due to § 7 in the new Statistics Act, tables 11655, 11657 and 12018 have not been updated with figures for 2020. This is due to stricter privacy requirements. The tables will be updated as soon as a new method is in place.

Updated

Next update

Key figures

-1.9 %

less jobs

Number of jobs, wage earners, and average monthly basic earnings, by sex
4th quarter 20204th quarter 2019 - 4th quarter 2020
Absolute numbersPercentage change
Number of jobs (employments)
Both sexes2 896 177-1.9
Males1 498 295-2.2
Females1 397 882-1.7
 
Number of employees
Both sexes2 625 343-1.7
Males1 389 746-2.0
Females1 235 597-1.3
 
Average monthly basic earnings (NOK)
Both sexes46 0002.0
Males48 3602.2
Females43 0901.8

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Number of jobs and average monthly basic earnings, by sex

Number of jobs and average monthly basic earnings, by sex
Number of jobs (employments)Average monthly basic earnings (NOK)
4th quarter 20204th quarter 2019 - 4th quarter 20204th quarter 20204th quarter 2019 - 4th quarter 2020
Absolute numbersPercentage changeAbsolute numbersPercentage change
Both sexes
All ages2 896 177-1.946 0002.0
Less than 25 years385 339-3.629 5301.4
25-39 years969 565-2.242 7402.0
40-54 years961 305-2.050 4101.8
55-66 years518 2930.451 1001.9
67 years or older61 675-5.147 8402.5
 
Males
All ages1 498 295-2.248 3602.2
Less than 25 years187 024-4.030 3301.5
25-39 years506 985-2.944 1502.2
40-54 years496 996-2.253 4402.0
55-66 years269 1530.955 1201.8
67 years or older38 137-3.050 5802.0
 
Females
All ages1 397 882-1.743 0901.8
Less than 25 years198 315-3.228 4401.2
25-39 years462 580-1.441 0101.9
40-54 years464 309-1.646 8101.6
55-66 years249 140-0.246 2301.9
67 years or older23 538-8.441 9503.6

Table 2 
Number of jobs and average monthly basic earnings, by county

Number of jobs and average monthly basic earnings, by county
Number of jobs (employments)Average monthly basic earnings (NOK)
4th quarter 20204th quarter 2019 - 4th quarter 20204th quarter 20204th quarter 2019 - 4th quarter 2020
Absolute numbersPercentage changeAbsolute numbersPercentage change
Viken573 893.45 130.
Oslo518 295-2.651 8903.0
Innlandet181 045.41 650.
Vestfold og Telemark196 016.43 180.
Agder149 233.43 290.
Rogaland268 386-1.948 0101.5
Vestland340 986.45 200.
Møre og Romsdal139 277-2.643 2901.6
Trøndelag - Trööndelage251 358-1.044 5801.9
Nordland126 256-1.942 9201.8
Troms og Finnmark - Romsa ja Finnmárku135 452.43 380.

Table 3 
Number of jobs and average monthly basic earnings, by industry division (17 groups, SIC2007)

Number of jobs and average monthly basic earnings, by industry division (17 groups, SIC2007)
Number of jobs (employments)Average monthly basic earnings (NOK)
4th quarter 20204th quarter 2019 - 4th quarter 20204th quarter 20204th quarter 2019 - 4th quarter 2020
Absolute numbersPercentage changeAbsolute numbersPercentage change
All industries2 896 177-1.946 0002.0
Agriculture, forestry and fishing37 795-1.339 5803.5
Mining and quarrying61 734-0.564 3801.7
Manufacture218 310-2.646 3301.4
Electricity, water supply, sewerage, waste management34 6271.352 2501.3
Construction247 466-1.043 8602.3
Wholesale and retail trade: repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles372 490-1.241 3302.5
Transportation and storage136 723-5.644 8502.0
Accommodation and food service activities95 413-19.332 9002.7
Information and communication102 8782.259 5802.5
Financial and insurance activities48 7483.063 3602.4
Real estate, professional, scientific and technical activities173 488-2.157 7002.3
Administrative and support service activities152 344-9.539 5301.4
Public adm., defence, soc. security188 8601.449 8601.1
Education255 5260.946 5000.8
Human health and social work activities652 6350.541 3200.7
Other service activities115 246-4.343 4202.6
Unspecified1 89439.662 8304.7

Table 4 
Number of jobs, by immigrant category and country background

Number of jobs, by immigrant category and country background
4th quarter 20204th quarter 2019 - 4th quarter 2020
Absolute numbersPercentage change
 
First generation immigrants without Norwegian background
Nordic countries45 004-3.3
Western Europe else48 370-1.0
EU countries in Eastern Europe134 319-3.4
Eastern Europe else43 016-0.7
North America and Oceania7 5400.1
Asia135 378-1.3
Africa54 265-1.0
South and Central America16 156-0.9
Non-residents
Nordic countries19 935-13.0
Western Europe else6 761-17.8
EU countries in Eastern Europe51 446-18.5
Eastern Europe else1 250-15.1
North America and Oceania410-22.2
Asia1 669-10.3
Africa455-4.2
South and Central America183-18.3

Table 5 
Job flows, by industry division (17 groups, SIC2007)

Job flows, by industry division (17 groups, SIC2007)
Number of jobs (employments)Job decreases, all establishmentsJob increases, all establishments
4th quarter 20204th quarter 2019 - 4th quarter 20204th quarter 20204th quarter 2019 - 4th quarter 20204th quarter 20204th quarter 2019 - 4th quarter 2020
Absolute numbersPercentage changeAbsolute numbersPercentage changeAbsolute numbersPercentage change
All industries2 896 177-1.9363 56032.2306 796-3.7
Agriculture, forestry and fishing37 795-1.36 79511.36 304-12.7
Mining and quarrying61 734-0.54 85688.14 555-41.3
Manufacture218 310-2.621 35031.215 486-20.6
Electricity, water supply, sewerage, waste management34 6271.33 09331.73 5337.0
Construction247 466-1.034 1548.931 632-13.8
Wholesale and retail trade: repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles372 490-1.244 2956.139 8902.1
Transportation and storage136 723-5.623 05938.314 911-9.4
Accommodation and food service activities95 413-19.335 851120.913 036-34.1
Information and communication102 8782.210 4106.912 657-15.6
Financial and insurance activities48 7483.02 792-20.84 211-3.2
Real estate, professional, scientific and technical activities173 488-2.126 46011.822 711-15.2
Administrative and support service activities152 344-9.538 50259.122 590-16.3
Public adm., defence, soc. security188 8601.418 82380.021 49887.9
Education255 5260.912 26615.614 5150.2
Human health and social work activities652 6350.557 48136.560 49923.4
Other service activities115 246-4.322 82036.017 678-10.0
Unspecified1 89439.65533.91 09021.8

Table 6 
Job flows, by sector

Job flows, by sector
Number of jobs (employments)Job decreases, all establishmentsJob increases, all establishments
4th quarter 20204th quarter 2019 - 4th quarter 20204th quarter 20204th quarter 2019 - 4th quarter 20204th quarter 20204th quarter 2019 - 4th quarter 2020
Absolute numbersPercentage changeAbsolute numbersPercentage changeAbsolute numbersPercentage change
Sum all sectors2 896 177-1.9359 59835.8302 834-1.8
Private sector, public enterprises, and unspecified1 893 791-3.4278 38631.8212 226-13.9
Local government663 8080.467 97765.570 48650.2
Central government338 5782.113 2356.620 12235.1

About the statistics

The statistics show the number of people working in Norwegian establishments and their earnings. The purpose is to show changes in the number of jobs, number of employees, and earnings for each quarter compared to the same quarter the year before. The statistics include both residents and non-residents as well as all age groups.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

The statistics of the number of employees and jobs (employments) are based on reported information from A-ordningen for the middle month of a given quarter. Statistics Norway follows the recommendations of the International Labour Organization (ILO) regarding preparation of labor statistics in the choice of key concepts and definitions.

Job-related characteristics

Employed persons are persons who performed paid work of at least one hour's duration in the reference week, as well as persons who have such work but who were temporarily absent due to illness, vacation, paid leave, etc. Employed persons include employees and self-employed persons.

Employees are persons who receive compensation for work in the form of earnings. Fore employees with more than one job (employment), one is established as the most important (i.e., the main job (employment)).

Job/employment: Job and employment are used synonymously and defines work compensated by earnings. A person may have several jobs/employments in different establishments.

Employer-related characteristics

The characteristics of place of work and industry division/sector are obtained from the Central Register of Business Establishments and Enterprises (CRE) and apply to the establishment where the person works.

Information about the sector is retrieved from the CRE. Sector is classified according to the Classification of Institutional Sector.

Personal characteristics

Characteristics such as place of residence, sex, and age are obtained from the National Registry.

Residents are defined as persons registered in the National Registry and also include temporary residents who plan on staying in Norway for six months or more.

Non-residents are defined as persons registered in the National Registry with a planned stay in Norway of less than six months. Non-residents include persons with a temporary social security number (D-number) or registered as emigrants, but who work in Norway.

Immigrants are defined as persons who are born abroad, have foreign-born parents and grandparents, and later immigrated to Norway. Data on immigration status and country background are retrieved from registries at Statistics Norway.

Earning terms

The term earning relates to payment for work in an employment relationship. The statistics do not include payment or benefit in kind, insurance, expense allowance, holiday pay etc. Gross earnings before tax is the basis of the earning terms.

Basic monthly earning is the fixed amount that is paid, whether it is defined as an hourly, monthly, fortnightly or weekly earnings. Basic monthly earning is the actual paid amount at the time of count and is often described as earnings on a scale or regular basic earning. Qualification/skills allowances and other regular personal allowances are included.

Monthly earnings include basic monthly earning, variable additional allowances and bonuses. This is measured in the middle month of the quarter. Overtime pay is not included in monthly earnings.

Full-time equivalents: In order to compare earnings between full-time and part-time employees, the earnings of part-time employees are converted to the equivalent for full-time work. This is done using the percentage of each part-time employee’s position as a conversion factor. Monthly earnings per full-time equivalent for part-time employees can then be merged with the monthly earnings of full-time employees so that the average monthly earnings for all employees can be calculated.

Payment in cash includes all payments in cash from the employer including basic monthly earnings, fixed and variable additional allowances, bonuses, overtime pay and other payments in cash not specified here, before taxes.

Job flows: Job increases and job decreases in establishments

Job increase and job decrease is based on whether the number of jobs (employments) in a given establishment has increased or decreased during the last year for a given quarter. The tables distinguishes between job flows as a result of new establishments, terminated establishments and increase/decrease in existing establishments. Existing establishments is an establishment with employees on both points of measure. New establishments were not established or had no employees at first point of measure. Terminated establishments had employees at the first point of measure but was terminated or had no employees at the last point of measure.

Within the different industries, job increase and job decrease can be a result of existing establishments changing industry between the points of measure. All jobs (employments) that are moved counts as job decrease in the industry they are leaving and job increase in the industry they are entering. The establishment can have the same amount of jobs (employments) on both points of measure, but we will still see a job increase in one industry and job decrease in another. In the statbank table there are numbers who specifically shows job increase and job decrease as a result of existing establishments changing industry. This will also be the case when distinguishing job increase and job decrease by sector. Since establishments can change industry without changing sector and vice versa, the number of job increases and job decreases in the tables by industry will differ from the numbers in the tables by sector.

Labour force flows: New hirings and terminated hirings

Labour force flows occur as a result of a replacement of employees in establishments. This is affected by new hirings, terminated hirings and employees changing jobs. The statbank tables distinguishes between labour force flows as a result of these measurements. Jobs (employments) are measured by establishments, which means that employees changing establishment within the same enterprise also contributes to labour force flows. The statistics are based on two points of measure (same quarter, past and present year), meaning that short term jobs (employments) between the points of measure are not included in the labour force flows.

Labour force flows and job flows (described above) are closely related. Job flows describes job increase and job decrease, and the establishments are the focus area. Labour force flows focus on the employee, and the statistics allows for distinguishing numbers by sex, age, education, immigration categories etc. In total, job increases and job decreases (job flows) adds up to the same change in number of jobs as new hirings and terminated hirings in the establishments (labour force flows).

Monthly figures from a-ordningen

The purpose of the additional tables is to provide a frequent overview of the economic trends in Norway, as measured by changes in the number of jobs (employments), employees and payment in cash.

The experimental statistics includes all employed persons who have their place of work in Norwegian establishments, regardless of age and whether the employee is a resident in Norway or not. The requirement for being included is either having received payment in the reference period, being temporarily absent due to leave or being laid off temporarily or having received compensation for wages e.g. maternity leave, parental benefits or sickness benefits. Self-employed are not included.

The tables contain both preliminary and final figures based on monthly information from a-ordningen. In the «first version» of the monthly figures, there are some jobs/employees that are not included due to delays in the reporting, as a result we refer to the figures as preliminary. In the final figures, we use a «second version» from a-ordningen, which is available one month later and where the above-mentioned jobs/employees are included. The ordinary labour market statistics that use data from a-ordningen are all based on this second version. Using the first version means that we do not capture all jobs/employees in line with the employment definition, but it enables earlier publication.

The jobs/employees that are not captured, as a result of using the first version, consists of delayed reporting, replacements for previous months and jobs with various time delays. The latter includes a) a newly started employment without pay in the reference week who receives pay the following month, and b) employment without pay in the reference week, but with pay in both the month before and after. The reference week is the week that contains the 16th, which is the 3rd week of the month.

 

Standard classifications

The industrial classification is in accordance with the revised Standard Industrial Classification (NOS D 383), which is based on the EU-standard of NACE Rev. 2.

The occupational classification is in accordance with the Standard Classification of Occupations (STYRK-08), which is based on ISCO-08 (COM).

The sector classification is in accordance with the Classification of Institutional Sector.

Breakdown by county and municipality is in accordance with the list of counties and municipalities as of the 1st in the middle month of a given quarter.

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Number of employments and earnings
Topic: Labour market and earnings

Next release

Responsible division

Division for Labour Market and Wage Statistics

Regional level

Municipality, county, and the country as a whole

Frequency and timeliness

Quarterly

International reporting

None

Microdata

Source data are permanently stored.

Background

Background and purpose

The purpose of the current statistics is to elucidate changes in the number of jobs (employments) and employees, as well as provide tables of the development at a detailed regional level (municipalities and counties) that we do not have in the Labour Force Survey (LFS) or the quarterly national accounts.

The statistics are based on A-ordningen. A-ordningen was established in 2015 and is a common reporting system for everyone disbursing earnings, pension, and other benefits. It is based on monthly reporting of relevant information in the form of a so-called a-melding, which is transmitted electronically to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV), the Norwegian Tax Administration, and Statistics Norway.

The statistics were first published in January 2018, with figures dating back to 1st quarter 2016.

 

Users and applications

Public administration and local administration in particular, employers' and employees' organisations, media, individual companies, and researchers

Equal treatment of users

No external user has access to the figures until 8 a.m. on the day of publication at https://www.ssb.no/en/. Notice about the publication are given in the statistics calendar at least three months in advance.

Coherence with other statistics

There are two different approaches that can be used when describing employment in Norway:

  1. the participation of the population in the labor market
  2. establishments use of labor in the production of goods and services

When looking at the population's participation in the labor market, the population is normally limited to persons aged 15-74 years and registered as residents in Norway. This approach is used in the annual registry-based employment statistics and in the Labor Force Survey (LFS).

When looking at the establishments ' use of labor in the production of goods and services, it is common to include all employed persons who have their place of work in Norwegian establishments, regardless of age and whether the employee is registered as a resident of Norway or not. This approach is used by the national accounts and structural statistics. It is also this population that is used in the current statistics on the number of employees and jobs (employments) (see the Production section for more information).

The annual registry-based employment statistics describe employment and industry division/sector at a detailed regional level. The statistics are based on persons registered as residents of Norway according to the National Registry and working in Norwegian establishments. The criterion is that you are expected to stay for at least six months in the country. Employed persons include employees and self-employed persons. The statistics include employed persons per 4th quarter (reference week in November). For employed persons with more than one job (employment), one is identified as the most important. The main difference between the quarterly statistics on the number of jobs (employments) and the annual registry-based employment statistics is that the latter statistics also includes self-employed persons, but it does not include employees on short-term stays (i.e., planned stay of less than six months). In addition, the registry-based employment statistics are restricted to 15-74 years, while there are no age limits in the statistics on the number of jobs (employments) and employees.

When it comes to reporting the number of jobs (employments) in the national accounts and other economic statistics, this is also based on Norwegian establishments, regardless of whether the person is resident or not. This is the same approach as in the current statistics.

Legal authority

Act on Official Statistics and Statistics Norway § 10, cf. Act on the employer's reporting of employment and income conditions, etc. (the a-opplysnings Act) § 3.

EEA reference

Not relevant

Production

Population

These statistics are based on the establishments’ use of labor in the production
of goods and services in Norway (see the Coherence with other statistics subsection
under the Background section for more information). When looking at the
establishments’ use of labor in the production of goods and services, it is common to include all employed persons who have their place of
work in Norwegian
establishments, regardless of age and whether the employee is resident in Norway or
not. This also includes foreign employees on short-term stays (non-residents).

Employed persons include employees and self-employed persons. Only the former are reported to A-ordningen. Therefore, the current statistics only cover jobs (employments) among employees

Data sources and sampling

Data sources

The main source of the statistics is A-ordningen, which is a coordinated digital collection of job (employment), income, and tax deductions for the Norwegian Tax Administration, the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV), and Statistics Norway. This means that Statistics Norway receives information about earnings and employees directly from the so-called a-meldingen, which is the electronic message containing all the information collected. More information may be found on https://www.skatteetaten.no/bedrift-og-organisasjon/arbeidsgiver/a-meldingen/.

In addition to A-ordningen, other registers are used, the most important being Vernepliktsverket and Enhetsregisteret and the Central Register of Business Establishments and Enterprises (CRE).

Sampling

Not relevant

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Data Collection

The statistics is not based on data collection, but  a number of different registries:

  • Statistics Norway receives monthly data from A-ordningen.
  • Statistics Norway receives monthly data from Vernepliktsverket.
  • Variables such as place of work and industry division/sector are obtained from Enhetsregisteret and the Central Register of Business Establishments and Enterprises (CRE).
  • Personal characteristics are obtained from the National Registry.

Calculations

The statistics is solely based on register data, meaning that the calculations consist of summing up the numbers of employees and jobs (employments) in specific Groups.

Reported level of earnings is average values. This is based on jobs (employments) with earnings equal to the ones defined under 'Earning terms' at the point of measure. Not all jobs (employments) has an earning each month, meaning that they can be included in enumeration, not affecting the calculation of average earnings.

 

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

Statistics Norway’s common rules of confidentiality are followed.

Comparability over time and space

Comparable figures are available from 1st quarter 2016 onwards.

These statistics are not comparable to the annual register-based employment statistics or the Labour Force Survey (LFS), as they are based on another population. Nor will the statistics be completely comparable to the employment figures in the national accounts, although the population is essentially similar. The difference is due to the fact that the national accounts publish figures for employed persons, which also include self-employed persons. In addition, the number of employed persons in the national accounts is given as an average for all months in the quarter. For more information, see the Background section.

In the first quarter of 2020 (2020Q1) there was a change in the method for estimating working hours. The change only affects the distribution of wage earners by different classifications. The categorical placement of wage earners is decided by their main job. The new method may cause a change in main job for people having several jobs and hence their placement as wage earners by industry, occupation, place of work etc. The change in method does not lead to significant systematic changes between groups, and in most cases the number of wage earners will be close to unaffected. In the first quarter of 2020 the change in method caused a net change of about 3000 wage earners by industry (17 groups). In other words, the industries having a decrease in the number of wage earners had a total decrease of about 3000 wage earners. Other industries had an equivalent increase in total.

From the first quarter of 2020 the statistics is affected by the region reform (including both counties and municipalities), which was put in force from January 1. 2020. The reform mainly affects the magnitude of job- and labor force flows. Some establishments were closed due to the reform, with the employees being transferred to existing or new establishments in the new municipalities and/or counties. Employees changing establishments will lead to increased job- and labor force flows. Hirings in the closed establishments will be defined as terminated and hirings in the new establishments will be defined as new hirings. In addition to the municipal and regional sector the effect is most noticeable for classifications where a large share of the employees works in the municipal and regional sector. The industries most affected are 84 Public administration, defense and social security, 85 Education and 86-88 Human health and social work activities. The reform will have an effect on job- and labor force flows throughout 2020.

 

In the first quarter of 2020 (2020Q1) there was a change in the method for estimating working hours. The change only affects the distribution of wage earners by different classifications. The categorical placement of wage earners is decided by their main job. The new method may cause a change in main job for people having several jobs and hence their placement as wage earners by industry, occupation, place of work etc. The change in method does not lead to significant systematic changes between groups, and in most cases the number of wage earners will be close to unaffected. In the first quarter of 2020 the change in method caused a net change of about 3000 wage earners by industry (17 groups). In other words, the industries having a decrease in the number of wage earners had a total decrease of about 3000 wage earners. Other industries had an equivalent increase in total.

From the first quarter of 2020 the statistics is affected by the region reform (including both counties and municipalities), which was put in force from January 1. 2020. The reform mainly affects the magnitude of job- and labor force flows. Some establishments were closed due to the reform, with the employees being transferred to existing or new establishments in the new municipalities and/or counties. Employees changing establishments will lead to increased job- and labor force flows. Hirings in the closed establishments will be defined as terminated and hirings in the new establishments will be defined as new hirings. In addition to the municipal and regional sector the effect is most noticeable for classifications where a large share of the employees works in the municipal and regional sector. The industries most affected are 84 Public administration, defense and social security, 85 Education and 86-88 Human health and social work activities. The reform will have an effect on job- and labor force flows throughout 2020.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The statistics are based on A-ordningen. The quality of A-ordningen is generally good. Nevertheless, some errors might occur.

Measurement and processing errors

Some errors might occur due to incorrect reporting of the information (measurement error). Furthermore, errors might occur as the result of data processing conducted at Statistics Norway (processing error).

There are indications of gradual improvement in the reporting to A-ordningen from 2015 to 2016, even though the reporting during the first year of A-ordningen (2015) is considered as being good. Therefore, figures are published from 1st quarter 2016 onwards.

More uncertainty is expected in the number of employees and jobs (employments) at a detailed regional level than at a more aggregated level (e.g., the country as a whole).

Not relevant

Sample error

Not relevant

Revision

Not relevant